Showing posts with label Bangladesh Studies. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Bangladesh Studies. Show all posts

Sunday, 4 July 2021

Organizational Culture or Corporate Culture in Govt and Private Corporations

You feel different when you go to various offices for your purposes and tasks. It can be government offices or private banks you visit. Why do you feel differently?

What is Organizational Culture?

The most basic definition of an organization's culture is “the way things are done around here” By Deal and Kennedy.

The workplace is governed by a number of formal and unwritten norms. Every business, like most people, has its own distinct personality.

Organizational culture is a potent factor that influences the behavior of group members despite being invisible. The expectations, experiences, philosophy, and values that hold an organization together are reflected in its self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside world, and future expectations. It is built on common attitudes, beliefs, conventions, and written and unwritten regulations that have evolved over time and are regarded as valid.

Organizational culture (corporate or office culture) refers to how employees interact with the world both inside and outside their workplace. It is inferred and deduced from its employees' characteristics and qualities. Dress codes and office layouts are simply the tips of the iceberg when it comes to workplace culture.

Culture in Public and Private Corporations  

Bangladesh has two distinct forms of office culture: a/ the relaxed government workplace and b/ the fast-paced private sector one. However, in recent years, we've seen the growth of an employee-friendly corporate culture, primarily in Silicon Valley-inspired start-ups. Individualistic and hierarchical organizational structures, seen in major private firms are being replaced by these tendencies.

Companies like Apple, Google, and Netflix have proved that strong growth rates and employee-friendly company culture can coexist since the digital boom.

To know more about organizational culture – click here.

Sunday, 17 May 2020

The Unfinished Memoirs - Book Review

Bangabandhu's unfinished autobiography is one of the most-read books published in Bengali. Apart from Bengali, the book has been translated into many languages including English, Urdu, Spanish, German, Chinese and Japanese. Initiatives have also been taken to translate into many more languages. 
The Unfinished Memoirs Book Review

Book Review of the Unfinished Memoirs
Bangabandhu started writing this book in 1967 (while in prison). This book is basically written about the events from his birth (1920) to 1954. The Father of the Nation in Bangladesh is not a hero in his autobiography. The hero is Hossain Shaheed Suhrawardy. Throughout the book, Bangabandhu wants to talk about his political mentor and guru. The extent of Suhrawardy's influence in his political life will become clear as soon as you read the book. 

The author has explained his different personal, political and economic events and struggle in 'The Unfinished Memoir' from his practical experience. These include the introduction of his family (birth, genealogy, childhood, marriage), school and college education as well as social and political activities, Bengal famine of 1943, riots in Bihar and Calcutta, partition, politics of Muslim League, politics of East Bengal from partition to 1954, oppression of Muslim League government, language movement, the establishment of Awami League, the formation of the United Front & its election-winning, Adamjee riots, discriminatory rule of the central government of Pakistan. 

Bangabandhu used to play good football in his school life and he was the captain of the team. As a student, he was also talented and attentive. Sheikh Mujib was incredibly popular in student politics. He gained this popularity from his childhood. He had a deep respect for poet Kazi Nazrul Islam. He was an honest politician and when he needed money, he simply asked his father, the sister, and even from his wife Renu. The account of his travels to China, India and West Pakistan has given the book a special dimension. Bangabandhu's parents, children and above all his enduring wife stood by him in all difficult times as a supporting force in his political life and imprisonment. 

Suhrawardy, Sher-e-Bangla, Bhasani and many more! 
This book introduces us to the role of Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq (popularly known as Sher-e-Bangla), Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani (Maulana Bhashani) and some other leaders and individuals. Moreover, the outstanding contributions of many heroes like Manik Mia and Shamsul Haque who are still underestimated have been revealed. 

The most talked-about person in this book is Suhrawardy. Throughout the book, the author has addressed him as Shaheed Sahib. Suhrawardy was simultaneously the author's inspiration to enter politics, a political advisor and a man of absolute respect. The review of this book can be completed only by writing about him! 

In the book, the author addresses Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq as Haq Saheb. The popularity of Sher-e-Bangla was so high at that time. One day, Bongobondhu’s parents told him not to make any personal attack against Sher-e-Bangla A.K. Fazlul Haque. He did not become 'Sher-e-Bangla' without reasons and the soil of Bengal fell in love with him. Mr Haque was friends of the poor. 

Some quotes from Bangabandhu
‘There is no need to work together with incompetent leadership, unprincipled leaders and cowardly politicians in the country. In that, the destruction of the country and the people is more than that of the service.’ (P. 273) 

‘If you love people, people love you too, if you accept a little sacrifice, people can give their lives for you.’ (P. 257) 

‘If leaders make the mistake in leading, the people have to pay the price. We voluntarily gave up the Calcutta that was built with the money of East Bengal.' (P. 79) 

Bangabandhu wrote in his autobiography (page 48), “Jealousy and betrayal are in our blood. Probably no other language in the world has this word, ‘Parashrikatarata’ (maybe - envy). ‘Parashrikatarata’ - one brother is not happy to see the improvement of his brother. That is why the Bengali nation, in spite of all its virtues, has had to endure the oppression of others all its life. The country is filled with so many resources and there are very few such fertile lands in the world. Yet they are poor for ages because they have been exploited on their own fault. They do not know themselves, and they will not be released until they know and understand themselves.” People go blind for the sake of self-interest. 

Summary of the Unfinished Memoirs (Oshomapto Attojiboni) - An autobiography by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman

The period of Bangabandhu's autobiography described in the book can be divided into three sections. First Episode (1920-1942), starting from his birth to passing Matriculation examination from Gopalganj Mission School in 1942. The second episode (1942-1947), from admission to Calcutta Islamia College at Intermediate level and stayed at Baker Hostel to leaving Kalkata and returning to Dhaka after the partition of India in 1947. Part III (1947-1954), from after the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the arrival of Bangabandhu at Dhaka in September 1947 towards the end of the year 1954, Suhrawardy joined as the law minister at the "Cabinet of Talents" formed under the leadership of Mohammad Ali of Bogra and a motion of no confidence was raised against Sher-e-Bangla AK Fazlul Haque as the leader of the United Front. 

Due to the political conspiracies against Bangabandhu (by the then Pakistani government), he was so separated from his family and it makes him unknown to his own children. What could be more painful for a father than this! In that pain, he said, ‘Even your own son forgets if he doesn’t see you for a long time! Who knows what a heinous act it would be to imprison a person without trial for political reasons and to keep his children and relatives away? Sheikh Mujibur Rahman sacrificed himself for the country, for the people of the country and for an independent country. He didn't think about his life, he didn't think about his family, he didn't think about his relatives. He thought of this country, thought of the soil and the people of this country. I didn't know how much a person could sacrifice for politics until I read the book. 

This book (the life of Bangabandhu's political activists) can be considered a must-read for students of all political parties in the country. There are examples of what an ideal student leader should be like. The notes at the end of the book, (1955-1975) enrich the book with an introduction to the author's political life, biographical notes on the persons mentioned in the text. 

After reading it, it seemed if there was a way to know more events in his writing, how much better it would be! So dissatisfaction remains at the end of reading! It would be the objective history of the birth of Bangladesh.

Friday, 15 May 2020

Karagarer Rojnamcha - A Jail Diary: Book Review

Karagarer Rojnamcha is one of the books which demonstrate Bangabandhu’s continuous thought and love toward the nation. The Bengali book has 332 pages in which 240 pages (from 27 to 267) contain the great leader's words and his prison life from the diary. The way Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman narrates his day to day events in the jail have already caught the attention to readers. Bangabandhu is not a poet but a ‘Poet of Politics’. In any situation, he always thinks about his people and the land even while living behind the bars. 

It's quite different from 'Unfinished Memories'. This is a personal description of the prison. What life is like, how difficult it is to go to jail, the 'hell of the world'. 
Karagarer Rojnamcha (A Jail Diary): Book Review

Karagarer Rojnamcha – A Book Review 
'Karagarer Rojnamcha' is the second autobiography of Father of the Nation Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. In English, it is called the prison diary. In the book, one can know the historical description of his political life and struggle during the Pakistan regime from 1966 to 1968. The name of the book has been given by his daughter Sheikh Rehana. 

The dramatic beginning
He starts his book by introducing the jail to the public- 

Those who have not gone to the prison or not experienced life in prison do not understand what the prison is. There are smaller jails in the jail. All kinds of criminals as well as innocent people live in jail. Furthermore, he gives a comprehensive description of customs and conventions of the prison. 

From the very beginning of his prison life, Bangabandhu had developed very cordial relations with the sepoys and prisoners. That is why everyone treated him with courtesy. He also obeyed prison laws, but protested against the unjust treatment of ordinary prisoners by prison authorities. 

Because of believing good politics and dreaming an independent country with justice, Bangabandhu was being punished by the elite rulers of Pakistan. But living in jail could not stop him from think about the nation and the people and the book is a proof for Bangladeshi people. 

Regarding the suppression of the opposition ideology, Sheikh Mujib said, "There can be differences of opinion in politics. For this, it is dangerous path to conspire and kill the people of the opposition party. Many people have to suffer the consequences of this sin." Sitting in his jail room, Sheikh Mujib was watching his party workers being put in jail one by one. He then said, "Eight more activists have been arrested in different places. The government is pursuing a policy of repression. People's demands cannot be suppressed through torture. The democratic movement should be dealt with in a democratic way." 

When the true news is stopped, many weird rumors spread in the villages; it does not benefit the government without harm. (Page 69) 

Forgiveness is a sign of greatness, but forgiving the wrongdoer is a sign of weakness. (Page 152) 

Knowing and watching prisoners closely, you can understand their lifestyle and why they commit crimes. Bangabandhu has always looked at the common man with affection and sympathy. The respect he has shown to Ludu alias Lutfar Rahman is unprecedented. Ludu is a professional thief. Bangabandhu's kind behaviour towards Ludu seemed to suggest that he literally believed in 'hate crime, not criminals'. He wrote from the events of Ludu’s life to get a picture of our society, the human character. People fall into the misery and disorder of our society; they become robbers, thieves and pickpockets. God does not create man to be a thief. 

Betrayal, Corruption and Ethics 
Animal cannot betray with its own species but human does. This prosperous Bangladesh is so fertile that gold is harvested here and parasites and weeds also grow more. Some Bengali is opportunists who are ready to sell their country for petty personal gains. These Bengalis have harmed themselves by forgetting their own people, joining hands with foreigners for personal gain. Bangladesh has suffered all its life only for some traitors. We usually speak of Mir Zafar Ali Khan. But they are more who have betrayed us. They have quarreled with each other and summoned foreign lords out of greed. Mir Jafar brought the English and Sirajuddaula was killed by betrayal. There were no shortages of people to help the British. So the people of this country have hanged the boys of this land for a little money or promotion. Even after becoming Pakistan, there was no shortage of agents or brokers - who were willing to give everything to West Pakistan for rewards. There is no shortage of these traitors in this country to shoot in the chest or imprison those who are fighting for the interests of Bengal. How can the golden country be saved from traitors? 

There is a long discussion about the quality of treatment in prison hospitals. Some doctors are good and some are evil. There are also examples of hypocrite people. A Maulana Sahib raped his student. 

Hobby and works 
Bangabandhu even plays the chef. He is seen cooking what he feels is a khichuri (hotchpotch dish). He used to feed chickens for a small yellow bird to wait, to alleviate his loneliness. 

He did gardening (decorating flower garden), planted rose plants and took care of it. Flower trees have got new life. He even wrote about yellow birds, pigeons, crows living inside the jail. These everyday works of the leader are depicted in the book. 

International Affairs & Foreign Policy 
In the diary, Bangabandhu commented on international politics, foreign relations of different countries with Pakistan, loans, aid, etc. He said the Kashmir issue should be resolved peacefully in the interest of the people of both India and Pakistan. He further blamed India, saying: "India should have reached a peace agreement between the two countries through a referendum recognizing the right of the people of Kashmir to self-determination." 

Bangabandhu was shocked at the disrespectful process of seeking US aid after the Pakistan-India war and wrote: it has insulted the people and the country and the beggar has no respect. ” He was rather inclined to establish relations with Soviet Russia. He voted for the establishment of socialism in the interest of the people. However, he was dissatisfied with China's role. 

Health & Illness 
He was in solitary confinement (living alone); no one is allowed to mingle with him. Those who are not victims do not realize how difficult it is to spend time alone. Sometimes, he broke down in the pain of loneliness. He also became physically weak, but by capitalizing on his mental strength, he wrote. Moreover, he had gastric, eye problems and piles 

Summary of the book that you will find: the prison-life of Bangabandhu, prison-torture, the unknown words of the prisoners, the words of the criminals, why they set foot in this criminal world. Similarly, the political situation at that time, dictatorship of Pakistani government and their ruthless repression, the misery of the Awami League leaders and workers in jail, the condition of the press & media, the brutal torture of the ruling group, the attempt to divert the 6-point passion, conspiracy, betrayal, father-mother affection, the emotional state of prisoners meeting their children, happiness of the insane in prison. Laughter-tears are presented with absolute compassion and sensitivity. 

The writer of this book is not a novelist or columnist but he is a pure politician. He talks and writes from his heart. While in jail, Banga-mata Sheikh Fazilatunnesa (Bangabandhu called her Renu) inspired him to write about his imprisonment. These writings were later collected and preserved with great effort and they became a unique document of history. The book is basically a printed version of those writings. 

This is a rare opportunity to see Bangabandhu's handwriting in the book. Besides, at the end of the book, the political life of Bangabandhu from 1955-1975, a brief biography of Bangabandhu, brief descriptions of various personalities in the annotations, some rare pictures of Bangabandhu family and 6 points are given in detail. 

One can understood by reading the book how many conspiracies and betrayals; how many thorny paths and how much pain & bleeding Bangabandhu has tolerated to give us a country and, a national flag. The great self-sacrifice has been shown by sacrificing his life and youth for the betterment of the destiny of the Bengalis. 

Tuesday, 12 May 2020

Dhaka University Is More Than a Brand

The University of Dhaka has become not only a place for the most meritorious students but also a brand in Bangladesh. The university has a big role in the creation of Bangladesh. This university always takes lead in almost every political, social and economic matters of Bangladesh. Foreign students also come to Bangladesh to study at the university. 

The Significance of the University of Dhaka 
The University of Dhaka, famously known as Dhaka University in Bangladesh, is the top-ranking university in Bangladesh and abroad. The short version of Dhaka University is DU. Founded on the first day of July 1921, the oldest university in Bangladesh creates human resources that hold top positions in every sector. They are the leaders in education as well as in corporate business. 

The DU alumni include: Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (1st President and Father of the country); Dr Muhammad Younus (only Nobel prize winner in Bangladesh, 2006); Tajuddin Ahmad (1st Prime Minister of Bangladesh); Satyendra Nath Bose, FRS (known for his work on quantum statistics); Dr Muhammad Shahidullah (educator); Anisuzzaman (academic); Samson H. Chowdhury (former chairman of Square), Abdullah Abu Sayeed and so on. The ink of a pen can be emptied but the number of notable alumni members of the University of Dhaka will not be ended. So I have mentioned a few names. Being a student of this public research university means a huge network and more opportunities. The public and private jobs, scholarships, business opportunities are more when you study at the highest-ranking public institution in a country. The fame, quality and the alumni members keep the public university run with pride. 

A Place of Revolution: The contribution of DU at the birth of Bangladesh 
Student leaders of Dhaka University (DU) have contributed immensely to the creation of Pakistan (1947) and Bangladesh (1971). After the independence of Pakistan, the Bengali leaders have taken bold initiatives (language movement, six-point movement, 1969 Mass uprising etc.) to seek justice from the oppressive government Pakistan. They have led and participated in the movement so that the success must come. The university has emerged as the centre of the movements of the mass people. 

When the operation searchlight began in 1971, Pakistani military targeted and raided at the University of Dhaka (main hub for all political struggles & subsequent movements) and its dormitories at first (1971 Dhaka University massacre). The Pakistani prime leaders and its military knew that most directions and movements of the former East Pakistan that went against them were coming from the teachers and students of the university. 

After the nine-month of liberation war, a child was born in 1971. We have named the child as (officially) the People's Republic of Bangladesh. A developing country (Bangladesh) in South Asia is now trying to develop its condition from the bottomless basket to a developed nation. The University of Dhaka is always a part of the country.

Monday, 4 May 2020

All Materials of Bangladesh Studies and Emergence of Bangladesh Courses

The post has been written to collect and arrange all the relevant and useful information (updated) for the students who want to learn about Bangladesh and its economy, politics, society, environment, history. Courses like ‘Bangladesh Studies’ and the ‘History of the Emergence of Bangladesh’ are made compulsory by the University Grants Commission of Bangladesh (UGC). 

Saturday, 2 May 2020

Education in South Asian Nations at the time of Coronavirus

The number of student in South Asia is growing. Some countries like Bangladesh have the opportunity termed demographic dividend. Demographic dividend causes a boost in productivity (economic) that happens when there are growing numbers of people in the workforce (the working-age population from 15 to 64) relative to the number of dependents (the non-working-age population - 14 or younger & 65 or older). 

Thursday, 26 March 2020

The Importance of Bengali Language Movement

The Significance of Language Movement of Bangladesh 

Coloured with the blood of Shaheed who sacrificed their lives in February 1952, language Movement gives people socio-politico-psychological confidences and knowledge on which subsequent movements for autonomy and independence grew in the then East Pakistan. Known as the Bhasha Andolon in Bengali, language movement of Bangladesh had sown the seeds that ultimately lead to the emergence of the separate sovereign nation (Bangladesh) in 1971. 

Bengali people are perhaps the one who shed their blood for their mother tough. Bangladesh has become the only country in the world by naming after its language. The Importance of the Bengali Language Movement has been written below: 

1. A movement can create and develop a new set of leaders. 

2. Political knowledge and consciousness of the local people increased. 

3. Bengali national identity was developed in East Pakistan. 

4. Fall of Muslim league and Dawn of Awami League 

5. Creation of secular and broad thinking in the politics 

6. Growing importance of teachers and students in the political and economic context 

7. How to get things done? – The people understood 

8. Practice of democratic thoughts 

9. Unity of people from various professions in East Pakistan. 

10. Rising importance of middle class in the society 

11. Political knowledge for future action and movement 

12. Language movement also catalyzed the following events: 

# 1954 general election: Incorporating a package of 21 point programme, an alliance of the opposition parties called United Front (4 parties of East Bengal) won against the ruling party, Muslim league in the elections of the East Bengal Legislative Assembly in 1954. 

# Recognizing Bangla in the constitution as one of the state languages of Pakistan in 1956. 

# Student movement against the Sharif Education Policy in 1962, 

# Six point movement in 1966 

# Mass uprising in 1969 

# The first and the last general election of united Pakistan in 1970 

# And finally the Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971.

# In 1999, February 21 was recognised as International Mother Language Day by UNESCO. From 2000, February 21 has been celebrated as International Mother Language Day around the world to promote linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism. 

# For promoting the unity in diversity and international understanding, through multilingualism and multiculturalism, the year 2008 was declared as the International Year of Languages by the UN General Assembly with the slogan "Languages Matter. 

The significance of a movement lies in outcomes that it can bring more tides and more movements. The Bengali Language movement is one of the stepping stones of Liberation Movement and ultimate freedom.

Monday, 23 March 2020

Bengali Language Movement before the Birth of Pakistan

Bengali Language Movement Even Before the Partition of India 

There were debates and controversies about whether the state language of Pakistan would be Urdu or Bangla even before the creation of independent Pakistan. The people of the then East Pakistan (now present Bangladesh) never obey the oppressive and illogical demand of accepting Urdu as a sole state language of Pakistan. 

Monday, 2 March 2020

How Can Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Be Achieved?

What Role Can Citizens (students, teachers, women) & Government Play for Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)?

Organizations and institutions (school, college, university & government) & general global citizens (students, teachers, women and businessmen) can contribute towards sustainable development in their own context. You do not need to be a rocket scientist, just be a responsible good citizen for that. 

1. Educate yourself & Educate People Around You 
At first, citizens have to read and understand the issues of sustainable development, global warming, and climate change etc. knowing theories is not just enough but the practical approach should be followed. In this case, teachers and researchers can play a big role in implementing sustainable development goals. Besides teaching and making SDGs easier for the students, teachers can find out more innovative and easier ways to reach these goals. We don’t know some peculiar facts on environment and SDGs. For example, the meat industry (consumption) causes global warming! We need to open our heart and eyes to learn new from the world. 

2. Team Work 
Supportive and strong teams are crucial since time is limited and we have to act quickly. Members of a team can support each other. Engineers, doctors, geographers, journalists and scientists can contribute in their own contexts. 

3. Simple Living & High Thinking
We must understand that over-consumption and wastages are harmful to our body and our world. People are at one corner starving and some are at other part throwing away excess food. If you have more than enough resources for you, donate and give items to the poor. 

4. Innovation
SDGs cannot be achieved through work as usual and waiting for either the economy or the government to change the world. Innovative ideas need to be translated into products and we should invest more in sustainable technology. The excessive use of natural resources must be minimized to preserve it from getting extinct. Ethical or environment-friendly products need to be produced more and focused to motivate people to buy. 

5. Good Governance 
Good Governance is essential for implementing new and sustainable ways. The Government, private sectors and citizens must cooperate with each other otherwise initiatives for good projects will see the failure. Governing bodies for sustainable development should be corruption free. 

6. Curricular and educational institutions 
If you go through the SDGs, you can recognize that these specific goals cannot possibly be attained without the positive influence of educational institutions. Knowledge and information of a wide spectrum of economic, social, and environmental challenges and solution are developed and rendered by teachers and researchers. Universities around the world receive public and private research funds and donation to, directly and indirectly, solve world issues and crisis. Educational institutions develop human resources that can translate learnt lessons into real-world applications. 

The student must be taught on the importance of SDGs and how to implement those goals. They need to be considerate, be moderate and be sensitive to the environment, society and culture. So the system and structure should be changed. The illiterate people should be provided formal or informal education for better knowledge on sustainable development. 

7. Volunteer & Leadership & Institutional culture 
Club activities, networking, campaigns and projects are crucial for students to be active and a good member of society. Universities can bridge between the students and the global stakeholders (collaborations between stakeholders: the UN, govt, NGOs, leaders, local communities). 

8. Reward system 
A reward system can be undertaken by the UN and governments. Person who contributes to SDGs will get monetary or in-kind awards. People love rewards and it is a great motivation. 

9. Awareness-raising programs 
Awareness-raising programs should be conducted from the school level to the university level for the importance of sustainable development. All sectors from government to non-government must integrate SDGs in their programs and projects properly. A combination of daily and small acts makes a real and big difference. Sustainable practices of living are not only good for the planet but also for a happier, healthier life. 

10. Donation 
One of the easiest of supporting the SDGs is to donate money and other resources to organizations that are dedicating it to fulfil specific Sustainable Development Goals. You can support a charity in various ways. 

11. Volunteer Your Time & Skills In Your Free Time 
You can spend time and money without hurting your study or career. Contributing to an organization which deals with the SDGs can make a real impact in local or national projects. 

12. Don’t waste 
We should not buy things which are unnecessary. Conserve water, gas, electricity as they are scarce and valuable. Moreover, pollution creates a problem for the health of human being and animals. 

13. Public bus & Ridesharing 
Using public transport and utilizing the ridesharing system (like Uber) & carpool help reduce carbon emission and traffic jam. 

14. Implementing green infrastructures
For the purpose of supporting a better quality of life and sustainable living, walkways, bikeways, parks and community gardens, greenways, energy-efficient homes and buildings etc. should be built. 

15. Forestation 
Besides filtering and oxygen generation, trees can be planted for foods (fruits, vegetables) for direct consumption and we can reverse a big part of damage we are creating on our ecosystem. Garden can a good hobby and it can reduce your chance to be depressed. You can use compost from your food scraps (kitchen). 

16. Reduce – Reuse – Repair - Recycle – Recover – Dispose Approach 

17. Invest in renewable energy and Avoid plastic 

Controlling human greed is very tough but it must be controlled. 

Question: How else can I help? The answer is very easy! 

Ans: 1/ Share this post to your friends and family. 

2/ Work as a team.

Sunday, 1 March 2020

A Teacher Who Sacrificed His Life for Students

“I am telling you - Don't open fire. My students will go back now." 

"Your bullets will penetrate my heart first before you hit a student!" 

--------------- A teacher. 

Dr Mohammad Shamsuzzoha Sacrificed His Life for His Students
These sentences are not just a bunch of words. The truth is - the teacher was not limited to speech and actually took bullets for his students. This legendary teacher I am talking about martyr Dr Mohammad Shamsuzzoha, a former Proctor and professor from the University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Educators, teachers and students should follow the martyr teacher Shaheed Mohammad Shamsuzzoha. 

At the age of commercialism, education has become a business product and teachers engage in politics (self-interest) and business, corrupting the noble profession. Selfless teachers are not easy to be found in today’s world. 

Who is Mohammad Shamsuzzoha? 
Shamsuzzoha obtained his BSc in Chemistry and MSc degree from the University of Dhaka. He also actively joined in the Language Movement during his university life. He also earned his PhD from Imperial College London in 1964. In 1961, he joined as a lecturer at the Department of Chemistry at Rajshahi University. In 1968, he got the proctor post at the same university. 

Anti Ayub government and Shaheed Mohammad Shamsuzzoha 
At the time of the mass movement (Gano Obhyuththan or Mass Upsurge) against the Ayub government (1968 - 1969), a student leader Asaduzzaman was killed (on 20 January 1969) by Pakistani forces in Dhaka. On February 15, Sergeant Zahurul Haque (an accused in the so-called Agartala Conspiracy Case) was killed in Dhaka Cantonment. So, the agitation spread across the country like fire and Rajshahi was not excluded. Students of Rajshahi University burst into protest due to the assassination of student leader Asaad and Sergeant Zahurul Haque. 

Sacrifice and Martyrdom 
On February 17, several students were injured as police launched a raid on the protest. On February 18, the students started protesting in front of the main gate of Rajshahi University. On the same day, the local administration imposed Section 144 on the highway adjacent to the University of Rajshahi. Angry students decided to violate Section 144 in the area where the army was deployed. Dr. Zoha tried to get his students back to the university dormitories. He urged the army officers to abstain from firing upon the students but the army shot the demonstrating students. Dr. Zoha was also wounded and carried to the hospital where he died. He sacrificed himself by taking bullets. 

The brave death of Zoha added a new dimension to the anti-Ayub movement. Led by Moulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani, the tide of protests spread throughout the country. The fall of the decade-long dictatorial regime of Field Marshal Mohammad Ayub Khan was quickened. The then Pakistani government had to withdraw the Agartala case and the unconditional release of all accused. 

A teacher was martyred for the purpose of saving the life of the students. In commemoration of his highest sacrifice for the cause of the country, Shahid Zoha Dibos (Martyr Zoha Day) is observed on 18 February. A student hall was named as Shaheed Shamsuzzoha Hall in Rajshahi University to keep the memory of Zoha's memorable. But his history of heroism should not be confined within a certain boundary (Rajshahi University). Martyr Zoha Day should be observed in every educational institution in the country as a Teacher's Day. Shaheed Mohammad Shamsuzzoha gave his life for the country and we must remember him and his sacrifice in that way. 

Md Shamsuzzoha, Bangladesh & the Globe 
Professor Dr. Md. Shamsuzzoha is a source of pride and inspiration for the whole teacher community and educational institutions all over the world. By sacrificing his life at the time of Mass Upsurge for the country, Dr Zoha became the first martyred intellectual in the history of the Independence War. His contribution is different from other martyred intellectuals as he was the one who gave his life for the students making it rare not only in Bangladesh but also in the entire world.

Saturday, 29 February 2020

BCS & Bank Written Questions Suggestions & Patterns for Urban & Rural Development

BCS & Bank Written Questions (Frequently Asked), Suggestions & Patterns for Urban & Rural Development and Local Government in Bangladesh
Prediction for Upcoming Competitive Exams (Govt, Private & University)

Urban & Rural Development
# Define urbanization. Discuss the development trend of Urbanization in both International and Bangladesh perspective.

# What do you mean by urban poverty? Discuss the consequences of urbanization in a developing country like Bangladesh.

# Discuss the Pull-Puss model of migration in the context of a developing country.

# Explain the Impact (positive & negative) of Migration and Urbanization in a developing country like Bangladesh.

# Discuss the problems/ crisis of urbanization in Bangladesh.

# What steps can be taken to meet the challenges of urbanization?

# What do you mean by Rural Development? Critically discuss the initiatives/ roles/ functions of the Bangladesh government for the Rural Development.

# Describe the history of rural development in Bangladesh.

# Critically discuss the initiatives/ roles/ functions of NGOs for the Rural Development in Bangladesh.

Local Government in Bangladesh
# Define local government. Explain the functions of rural local governments in Bangladesh.

# Define local governance. Explain the functions of urban local governments in Bangladesh.

# What is decentralization? Describe the formation of local government bodies (rural and urban) in Bangladesh.

# Analyze the political history of local government institutions in Bangladesh from the British period to the present time.

# How can good governance be implemented in local government in a developing country like Bangladesh?

# Critically discuss the central-local relationship of local government institutions in Bangladesh.

# Discuss the Features of the Comilla (Cumilla) Model in Bangladesh.

# Explain the role/functions of the Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development (BARD) in rural development.

Friday, 28 February 2020

BCS & Bank Written Questions Suggestions & Patterns for History of Bangladesh

Frequently Asked BCS & Bank Written Questions on History of Bangladesh from language movement to liberation war

Suggestions for Upcoming Competitive Exams

History of Bangladesh from 1947 to 1971

# “The spirit of Ekushey and Bengali nationalism are the turning point in the history of Bangladesh.” -- explain this statement with proper examples.

# Discuss the first and last phase of language movement in Bangladesh.

# “The Language Movement sows the seeds of Bangladeshi nationalism” -- explain this statement with suitable examples.


“The seed of liberation of Bangladesh was sown in 1952 when bullets were fired on 21st February. The seed grew into a tree and bear fruits in 1971.” -- explain this statement with suitable examples.

# Explain the political algorithm of 21st February in East Pakistan as well as West Pakistan.

# Explain the importance/ major achievements of Language Movement in Bangladesh.

# What was the Six-Point Programme? Discuss the historical background of the Six Point Movement in Bangladesh.

# Explain the outcomes/significance of Six Point Programme for East Pakistan as well as West Pakistan.


‘Six-point Programme was a Charter of Freedom.’-explain this statement with suitable examples.

# Describe the importance/ impact of the Agartala Conspiracy Case.

# Describe various discriminations against East Pakistan by West Pakistan.

# Explain the result and importance of the 1970 Pakistani general election which created a storm leading the creation of a country (freedom/ a revolution).

# What was the non-cooperation movement? Discuss the historical background of the liberation war of Bangladesh.

# Discuss the importance of the Bangabandhu’s 7th March address which sparked and inspired millions.

# “The Historic 7th March Speech of Bangabandhu is a de facto declaration of Bangladesh's independence.” -- explain this statement with proper examples.

# Discuss the role of Bangabandhu, the poet of politics from 1952 to 1971.

# Why is Bangabandhu called the father of the nation?

# Analyze the role of Tajuddin Ahmads’ leadership of the provisional government in 1971.

#What do you know about three regular Infantry Brigades S, K and Z Force?

# Discuss the significance of the government-in-exile at Mujibnagar (The Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh).

# Write a short note on
Operation Jackpot
Operation Search Light
Operation Kilo Flight
Operation Omega

BCS & Bank Written Questions Patterns & Suggestions for Economy Chapter

Frequently Asked BCS & Bank Written Questions on Economy, Economic Development Chapter

Suggestions for Upcoming Competitive Exams (Bangladesh Affairs)
# Explain the nature of Bangladesh's economy with recent data.

# Discuss the historical background of Bangladesh’s economy.

# Analyze the recent economic trends in Bangladesh.

# What do you know about the “bottomless basket”? How does Bangladesh move From 'Bottomless Basket' to Developing Nation/ vibrant economy/ Basket of Wonders/ basket of food/ The Emerging Tiger of Asia?

‘Bangladesh is no longer bottomless basket’ – explain the statement with Bangladesh’s growth story.

# What do you know about Bangladesh’s growing/booming/ rocketing economy?

# Define Blue economy. Discuss the strength and weakness of Bangladesh’s economy.

# How does coronavirus affect the economy/industry of a developing country like Bangladesh?

# Discuss the role/ functions of the planning commission in Bangladesh.

# Discuss the role/ functions of Executive Committee of the National Economic Council (ECNEC) or NEC.

# Briefly discuss the Annual Budget Preparation Process in Bangladesh.

# Describe the major problems or issues in Bangladesh’s economy with the best possible solutions/ measures for economic development.

#What is Gig Economy? How will we want to see Bangladesh in 2021/ 2041?

#Briefly discuss the key financial organizations involved in the budget-making process in Bangladesh.

# Suppose you are the finance minister of Bangladesh. What kinds of plans will you undertake to develop the country?

#How can good governance ensure economic development in Bangladesh?

#How can e-governance/ digitalization ensure economic development in Bangladesh?

Monday, 24 February 2020

Mujib Borsho observing from March 2020 to March 2021

Mujib Borsho is being observed from March 2020 to March 2021 

March 2020 to March 2021 is being observed as “Mujib Borsho” (the Year of Mujib) across Bangladesh. To mark the birth centenary of Bangabandhu, Prime Minister and AL Chief Sheikh Hasina has announced the year-long programmes. The timeframe is very important for the history and future of the country as Bangabandhu’s 100th birth anniversary program titled Mujib Borsho” (from March 2020 to March 2021) will be followed by the golden jubilee celebration of Bangladesh's independence in 2021(26 March). 

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has decided that UNESCO together with Bangladesh will celebrate the 'Mujib Borsho', Prime minister Sheikh Hasina announces. To pay the debt of the great leader, Father of the Nation, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, 'Mujib Borsho' is being celebrated with the participation of mass people at the government and non-government levels. Father of the Nation’s Homecoming Day, AL’s founding anniversary, National Mourning Day and Jail Killing Day will be commemorated in coordination with the ‘Mujib Borsho’. 

The Prime minister of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina has also warned her leaders and activists not to do excesses or overreaction while observing Mujib year.

Friday, 31 January 2020

Indian’s Ban on Onion and Cow Export to Bangladesh & Its Effects

Impact of The Indian’s Ban on Onion and Cows Export to Bangladesh: A blessing or curse

Some say that everything has its positive and negative sides in its own ways. India banned onion and cows export to its friend and neighbouring country, Bangladesh

Consequences of The Indian’s Ban on Cows Export to Bangladesh (Pros & Cons)
The price for cows and other animals has gone high and the people of Bangladesh had to buy meat at a higher price. Since the Muslim majority country, they (90% of BD people) sacrifice halal animals (cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, and camels) in the name of almighty Allah at the time of Eid al-Adha (locally known as Korbani Eid). During the time of animal sacrifice festival, the price of sacrificial animal remains highest.

Because of the high price and profit, cattle business in Bangladesh has flourished and many unemployed people involved in the cattle farm business. Now it has become an emerging source of income generation for the local entrepreneurs and dairy farmers (small and mid-level businesspersons). Due to the new business, animals for Eid slaughtering stay in stock at a good price and it is a win-win situation for both the buyers and the sellers. 

Bangladesh has now achieved self-sufficiency in animals and it has profoundly reduced cattle imports from Myanmar and India. The meat industry has also prevented virus attack from foreign meat.

Results of The Indian’s Ban on Onion Export to Bangladesh (Advantages & Disadvantages)
The sudden Indian’s ban on onion export has created a crisis in Bangladesh. Because of the continuous demand and price hike, the BD people are trying to consume less onion and avoid onion in food. The restaurants are using onion less and increase the food price.  The government of Bangladesh is mitigating the crisis by importing onion from several countries (Egypt, Pakistan, Turkey, Myanmar, China) by air and sea. The government also sells those imported essential cooking ingredient through the Trading Corporation of Bangladesh (TCB – a govt body). Scientists of agriculture universities and agriculture research institutes are also trying to find alternatives. All endeavours to tame the skyrocketing onion price have not seen success because syndicates are taking the advantages of the export ban.

However, raising domestic onion production and becoming a self-sufficient like the country did after cattle ban from India should be the main motto. Bangladesh has unemployment problems and it also has demographic dividend advantages.

Nowadays, not only traditional farmers but also by educated youths involve in commercial agribusiness. In Bangladesh, those who are the actual producer and grower of food are usually poor and uneducated. A revolution is required in the agriculture sector. Our agriculture business will be developed if farmers are well-educated and smart to know modern production and marketing method like in Europe and the USA.

There is no option but to turn these challenges into opportunities and make more businessmen in the country. From meat production to grain cultivation, vegetables and fruits production, smart people should think about it and come forward to do business. Furthermore, the government also needs to motivate the young generation not to wait for govt jobs only but to become entrepreneurs and give others jobs.  We will reduce dependency on every sector if the business is grown and run well.

It must be kept in mind that cattle owners must be stopped to inject harmful substances (injections of steroid, hormone) into animals in the name of fattening. The farmers must be encouraged to utilize composts and green fertilizers in agriculture production.


The Major Challenges of Bangladesh Foreign Policy

The Key Challenges of Foreign Policy in Bangladesh
Bangladesh, a South Asian country, is located in a conflicted region and peace may be a dream in the area. India, Pakistan and China have an uneasy political relationship and rivalries. Moreover, Kashmir disputes aggravate the bitterness of their bilateral relations. Bangladesh has also unsettled issues with its close neighbours.

Rohingya Issues, Myanmar & Friends
About 1 million Rohingya refugees fled from Myanmar taking shelter in Bangladesh. International communities help to donate money and to provide foods to the refugees but Bangladesh has not received support from its close friends. As Myanmar has a strategic location and lots to give, China, India and Japan are investing in the country (Burma).

Balancing relationship with different countries
Due to the geopolitical advantage, many influential countries are now giving much importance to Bangladesh. The country has to balance its relationship with these big players (US-Rus, China, Japan & India).

Bangladesh aborted Sonadia deep seaport project with China in 2016. India had shown a concern that it would bring China’s direct presence closer to Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India.

Chinese 'debt trap'
A big challenging question is - Is Bangladesh going to fall in a 'debt trap' of China? China and Bangladesh have made numerous infrastructure deals (billions worth). However, some are concern that dependence on Chinese money will force Dhaka indebted to Beijing although these investments promise advantages.

A love-hate relationship with India?
The changes in the government of Bangladesh affect the relations with its neighbouring country India. There is some sort of mistrust and the love-hate relationship between India (the world’s largest democracy) and Bangladesh.

The sharing of river Teesta’s waters:  Indian PM Narendra Modi has committed on the fair share of Teesta River’s water, but nothing happens.

Border killing: Although India has committed to zero border deaths, shooting and killings, unfortunately, continue at the India & Bangladesh border by India’s Border Security Force (BSF). It is also worth mentioning that the picture of Felani's body hanging on the border fence caught international media attention and created much anger among Bangladeshi citizens. The India & Bangladesh border has been termed as one of the most dangerous borders in the world.

Cows and Onion Crisis: Following the cow trade ban, legal cattle trade from India has shrunk but cow smuggling is increased significantly in the border.

Bangladesh also faced a huge demand and price hike crisis due to the Indian’s ban on onion export to Bangladesh. Bangladesh is trying to mitigate the problem by raising domestic onion production in the future.

Muhorir River & Char: The disputes on settling the boundary along the midstream of the Muhuri River is one of the unsolved issues between the two countries. Despite repeated requests from the government of Bangladesh, India keeps the disputes hanging.

World Bank & the Padma Bridge Project Scam
World Bank (WB) blocked its promised finance for constructing the Padma Multipurpose Bridge Project because of corruption conspiracy (2012) among Bangladeshi government officials with the key stakeholders. However, it was told (PM) that Muhammad Yunus stopped WB funding by using his relations with Hillary Clinton (the ex-US Secretary of State).

Money Laundering / Money Flight
Dishonest businessmen in Bangladesh generate capital flights (money smuggling) through opening fake LCs, over & under-invoicing of imports or hundi. The Bangladesh Financial Intelligence Unit (BFIU) and National Board of Revenue (NBR), the Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC), police and law enforcement agencies are trying to prevent money laundering but they have failed.

Drugs and smuggling
Bangladesh has become a supermarket for traffickers who buy the drugs from factories in Myanmar (a hub of ya’ba smuggling and trading) and India at cheap rates and sell in Bangladesh at higher price.

Migration & Remittance issue
Exports of labours from Bangladesh to the Middle East has declined profoundly for multiple factors, for instance: the higher migration cost, limited employment opportunities & promised salaries, violence against women workers, armed conflicts and lack of government initiatives to protect migrants etc. The manpower market is shrinking steadily. 

Terrorism and Extremism
After the attack on the Holey Artisan cafe in Dhaka (July 2016), a deadly extremist attack, there was a fear of growing extremism in Bangladesh but it has not happened thanks to the present government of Bangladesh. To stop terrorism and extremism, Anti-Terrorism Unit (ATU) and Counter-Terrorism and Transnational Crime (CTTC) have been established.

Imbalanced International Trade with China And India

Shortage of Bangladesh Diplomatic Missions Abroad

In foreign policy, friends are often changeable and there is no permanent friend or foe.  Only self-interest is constant (the real thing).

What should Bangladesh do?
Will BD make good friends with the influential countries who can help the country (without increasing enemies)?

Further Reading