Showing posts with label Bangladesh Affairs. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Bangladesh Affairs. Show all posts

Dhaka University Is More Than a Brand

The University of Dhaka has become not only a place for the most meritorious students but also a brand in Bangladesh. The university has a big role in the creation of Bangladesh. This university always takes lead in almost every political, social and economic matters of Bangladesh. Foreign students also come to Bangladesh to study at the university. 

The Significance of the University of Dhaka 
The University of Dhaka, famously known as Dhaka University in Bangladesh, is the top-ranking university in Bangladesh and abroad. The short version of Dhaka University is DU. Founded on the first day of July 1921, the oldest university in Bangladesh creates human resources that hold top positions in every sector. They are the leaders in education as well as in corporate business. 

The DU alumni include: Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (1st President and Father of the country); Dr Muhammad Younus (only Nobel prize winner in Bangladesh, 2006); Tajuddin Ahmad (1st Prime Minister of Bangladesh); Satyendra Nath Bose, FRS (known for his work on quantum statistics); Dr Muhammad Shahidullah (educator); Anisuzzaman (academic); Samson H. Chowdhury (former chairman of Square), Abdullah Abu Sayeed and so on. The ink of a pen can be emptied but the number of notable alumni members of the University of Dhaka will not be ended. So I have mentioned a few names. Being a student of this public research university means a huge network and more opportunities. The public and private jobs, scholarships, business opportunities are more when you study at the highest-ranking public institution in a country. The fame, quality and the alumni members keep the public university run with pride. 

A Place of Revolution: The contribution of DU at the birth of Bangladesh 
Student leaders of Dhaka University (DU) have contributed immensely to the creation of Pakistan (1947) and Bangladesh (1971). After the independence of Pakistan, the Bengali leaders have taken bold initiatives (language movement, six-point movement, 1969 Mass uprising etc.) to seek justice from the oppressive government Pakistan. They have led and participated in the movement so that the success must come. The university has emerged as the centre of the movements of the mass people. 

When the operation searchlight began in 1971, Pakistani military targeted and raided at the University of Dhaka (main hub for all political struggles & subsequent movements) and its dormitories at first (1971 Dhaka University massacre). The Pakistani prime leaders and its military knew that most directions and movements of the former East Pakistan that went against them were coming from the teachers and students of the university. 

After the nine-month of liberation war, a child was born in 1971. We have named the child as (officially) the People's Republic of Bangladesh. A developing country (Bangladesh) in South Asia is now trying to develop its condition from the bottomless basket to a developed nation. The University of Dhaka is always a part of the country.

All Materials of Bangladesh Studies and Emergence of Bangladesh Courses

The post has been written to collect and arrange all the relevant and useful information (updated) for the students who want to learn about Bangladesh and its economy, politics, society, environment, history. Courses like ‘Bangladesh Studies’ and the ‘History of the Emergence of Bangladesh’ are made compulsory by the University Grants Commission of Bangladesh (UGC). 

Education in South Asian Nations at the time of Coronavirus

The number of student in South Asia is growing. Some countries like Bangladesh have the opportunity termed demographic dividend. Demographic dividend causes a boost in productivity (economic) that happens when there are growing numbers of people in the workforce (the working-age population from 15 to 64) relative to the number of dependents (the non-working-age population - 14 or younger & 65 or older). 

The Importance of Bengali Language Movement

The Significance of Language Movement of Bangladesh 

Coloured with the blood of Shaheed who sacrificed their lives in February 1952, language Movement gives people socio-politico-psychological confidences and knowledge on which subsequent movements for autonomy and independence grew in the then East Pakistan. Known as the Bhasha Andolon in Bengali, language movement of Bangladesh had sown the seeds that ultimately lead to the emergence of the separate sovereign nation (Bangladesh) in 1971. 

Bengali people are perhaps the one who shed their blood for their mother tough. Bangladesh has become the only country in the world by naming after its language. The Importance of the Bengali Language Movement has been written below: 

1. A movement can create and develop a new set of leaders. 

2. Political knowledge and consciousness of the local people increased. 

3. Bengali national identity was developed in East Pakistan. 

4. Fall of Muslim league and Dawn of Awami League 

5. Creation of secular and broad thinking in the politics 

6. Growing importance of teachers and students in the political and economic context 

7. How to get things done? – The people understood 

8. Practice of democratic thoughts 

9. Unity of people from various professions in East Pakistan. 

10. Rising importance of middle class in the society 

11. Political knowledge for future action and movement 

12. Language movement also catalyzed the following events: 

# 1954 general election: Incorporating a package of 21 point programme, an alliance of the opposition parties called United Front (4 parties of East Bengal) won against the ruling party, Muslim league in the elections of the East Bengal Legislative Assembly in 1954. 

# Recognizing Bangla in the constitution as one of the state languages of Pakistan in 1956. 

# Student movement against the Sharif Education Policy in 1962, 

# Six point movement in 1966 

# Mass uprising in 1969 

# The first and the last general election of united Pakistan in 1970 

# And finally the Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971.

# In 1999, February 21 was recognised as International Mother Language Day by UNESCO. From 2000, February 21 has been celebrated as International Mother Language Day around the world to promote linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism. 

# For promoting the unity in diversity and international understanding, through multilingualism and multiculturalism, the year 2008 was declared as the International Year of Languages by the UN General Assembly with the slogan "Languages Matter. 

The significance of a movement lies in outcomes that it can bring more tides and more movements. The Bengali Language movement is one of the stepping stones of Liberation Movement and ultimate freedom.

Bengali Language Movement before the Birth of Pakistan

Bengali Language Movement Even Before the Partition of India 

There were debates and controversies about whether the state language of Pakistan would be Urdu or Bangla even before the creation of independent Pakistan. The people of the then East Pakistan (now present Bangladesh) never obey the oppressive and illogical demand of accepting Urdu as a sole state language of Pakistan. 

A Teacher Who Sacrificed His Life for Students

“I am telling you - Don't open fire. My students will go back now." 

"Your bullets will penetrate my heart first before you hit a student!" 

--------------- A teacher. 

Dr Mohammad Shamsuzzoha Sacrificed His Life for His Students
These sentences are not just a bunch of words. The truth is - the teacher was not limited to speech and actually took bullets for his students. This legendary teacher I am talking about martyr Dr Mohammad Shamsuzzoha, a former Proctor and professor from the University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Educators, teachers and students should follow the martyr teacher Shaheed Mohammad Shamsuzzoha. 

At the age of commercialism, education has become a business product and teachers engage in politics (self-interest) and business, corrupting the noble profession. Selfless teachers are not easy to be found in today’s world. 

Who is Mohammad Shamsuzzoha? 
Shamsuzzoha obtained his BSc in Chemistry and MSc degree from the University of Dhaka. He also actively joined in the Language Movement during his university life. He also earned his PhD from Imperial College London in 1964. In 1961, he joined as a lecturer at the Department of Chemistry at Rajshahi University. In 1968, he got the proctor post at the same university. 

Anti Ayub government and Shaheed Mohammad Shamsuzzoha 
At the time of the mass movement (Gano Obhyuththan or Mass Upsurge) against the Ayub government (1968 - 1969), a student leader Asaduzzaman was killed (on 20 January 1969) by Pakistani forces in Dhaka. On February 15, Sergeant Zahurul Haque (an accused in the so-called Agartala Conspiracy Case) was killed in Dhaka Cantonment. So, the agitation spread across the country like fire and Rajshahi was not excluded. Students of Rajshahi University burst into protest due to the assassination of student leader Asaad and Sergeant Zahurul Haque. 

Sacrifice and Martyrdom 
On February 17, several students were injured as police launched a raid on the protest. On February 18, the students started protesting in front of the main gate of Rajshahi University. On the same day, the local administration imposed Section 144 on the highway adjacent to the University of Rajshahi. Angry students decided to violate Section 144 in the area where the army was deployed. Dr. Zoha tried to get his students back to the university dormitories. He urged the army officers to abstain from firing upon the students but the army shot the demonstrating students. Dr. Zoha was also wounded and carried to the hospital where he died. He sacrificed himself by taking bullets. 

The brave death of Zoha added a new dimension to the anti-Ayub movement. Led by Moulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani, the tide of protests spread throughout the country. The fall of the decade-long dictatorial regime of Field Marshal Mohammad Ayub Khan was quickened. The then Pakistani government had to withdraw the Agartala case and the unconditional release of all accused. 

A teacher was martyred for the purpose of saving the life of the students. In commemoration of his highest sacrifice for the cause of the country, Shahid Zoha Dibos (Martyr Zoha Day) is observed on 18 February. A student hall was named as Shaheed Shamsuzzoha Hall in Rajshahi University to keep the memory of Zoha's memorable. But his history of heroism should not be confined within a certain boundary (Rajshahi University). Martyr Zoha Day should be observed in every educational institution in the country as a Teacher's Day. Shaheed Mohammad Shamsuzzoha gave his life for the country and we must remember him and his sacrifice in that way. 

Md Shamsuzzoha, Bangladesh & the Globe 
Professor Dr. Md. Shamsuzzoha is a source of pride and inspiration for the whole teacher community and educational institutions all over the world. By sacrificing his life at the time of Mass Upsurge for the country, Dr Zoha became the first martyred intellectual in the history of the Independence War. His contribution is different from other martyred intellectuals as he was the one who gave his life for the students making it rare not only in Bangladesh but also in the entire world.

BCS & Bank Written Questions Suggestions & Patterns for Urban & Rural Development

BCS & Bank Written Questions (Frequently Asked), Suggestions & Patterns for Urban & Rural Development and Local Government in Bangladesh
Prediction for Upcoming Competitive Exams (Govt, Private & University)

Urban & Rural Development
# Define urbanization. Discuss the development trend of Urbanization in both International and Bangladesh perspective.

# What do you mean by urban poverty? Discuss the consequences of urbanization in a developing country like Bangladesh.

# Discuss the Pull-Puss model of migration in the context of a developing country.

# Explain the Impact (positive & negative) of Migration and Urbanization in a developing country like Bangladesh.

# Discuss the problems/ crisis of urbanization in Bangladesh.

# What steps can be taken to meet the challenges of urbanization?

# What do you mean by Rural Development? Critically discuss the initiatives/ roles/ functions of the Bangladesh government for the Rural Development.

# Describe the history of rural development in Bangladesh.

# Critically discuss the initiatives/ roles/ functions of NGOs for the Rural Development in Bangladesh.

Local Government in Bangladesh
# Define local government. Explain the functions of rural local governments in Bangladesh.

# Define local governance. Explain the functions of urban local governments in Bangladesh.

# What is decentralization? Describe the formation of local government bodies (rural and urban) in Bangladesh.

# Analyze the political history of local government institutions in Bangladesh from the British period to the present time.

# How can good governance be implemented in local government in a developing country like Bangladesh?

# Critically discuss the central-local relationship of local government institutions in Bangladesh.

# Discuss the Features of the Comilla (Cumilla) Model in Bangladesh.

# Explain the role/functions of the Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development (BARD) in rural development.

BCS & Bank Written Questions Suggestions & Patterns for History of Bangladesh

Frequently Asked BCS & Bank Written Questions on History of Bangladesh from language movement to liberation war

Suggestions for Upcoming Competitive Exams

History of Bangladesh from 1947 to 1971

# “The spirit of Ekushey and Bengali nationalism are the turning point in the history of Bangladesh.” -- explain this statement with proper examples.

# Discuss the first and last phase of language movement in Bangladesh.

# “The Language Movement sows the seeds of Bangladeshi nationalism” -- explain this statement with suitable examples.


“The seed of liberation of Bangladesh was sown in 1952 when bullets were fired on 21st February. The seed grew into a tree and bear fruits in 1971.” -- explain this statement with suitable examples.

# Explain the political algorithm of 21st February in East Pakistan as well as West Pakistan.

# Explain the importance/ major achievements of Language Movement in Bangladesh.

# What was the Six-Point Programme? Discuss the historical background of the Six Point Movement in Bangladesh.

# Explain the outcomes/significance of Six Point Programme for East Pakistan as well as West Pakistan.


‘Six-point Programme was a Charter of Freedom.’-explain this statement with suitable examples.

# Describe the importance/ impact of the Agartala Conspiracy Case.

# Describe various discriminations against East Pakistan by West Pakistan.

# Explain the result and importance of the 1970 Pakistani general election which created a storm leading the creation of a country (freedom/ a revolution).

# What was the non-cooperation movement? Discuss the historical background of the liberation war of Bangladesh.

# Discuss the importance of the Bangabandhu’s 7th March address which sparked and inspired millions.

# “The Historic 7th March Speech of Bangabandhu is a de facto declaration of Bangladesh's independence.” -- explain this statement with proper examples.

# Discuss the role of Bangabandhu, the poet of politics from 1952 to 1971.

# Why is Bangabandhu called the father of the nation?

# Analyze the role of Tajuddin Ahmads’ leadership of the provisional government in 1971.

#What do you know about three regular Infantry Brigades S, K and Z Force?

# Discuss the significance of the government-in-exile at Mujibnagar (The Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh).

# Write a short note on
Operation Jackpot
Operation Search Light
Operation Kilo Flight
Operation Omega

BCS & Bank Written Questions Patterns & Suggestions for Economy Chapter

Frequently Asked BCS & Bank Written Questions on Economy, Economic Development Chapter

Suggestions for Upcoming Competitive Exams (Bangladesh Affairs)
# Explain the nature of Bangladesh's economy with recent data.

# Discuss the historical background of Bangladesh’s economy.

# Analyze the recent economic trends in Bangladesh.

# What do you know about the “bottomless basket”? How does Bangladesh move From 'Bottomless Basket' to Developing Nation/ vibrant economy/ Basket of Wonders/ basket of food/ The Emerging Tiger of Asia?

‘Bangladesh is no longer bottomless basket’ – explain the statement with Bangladesh’s growth story.

# What do you know about Bangladesh’s growing/booming/ rocketing economy?

# Define Blue economy. Discuss the strength and weakness of Bangladesh’s economy.

# How does coronavirus affect the economy/industry of a developing country like Bangladesh?

# Discuss the role/ functions of the planning commission in Bangladesh.

# Discuss the role/ functions of Executive Committee of the National Economic Council (ECNEC) or NEC.

# Briefly discuss the Annual Budget Preparation Process in Bangladesh.

# Describe the major problems or issues in Bangladesh’s economy with the best possible solutions/ measures for economic development.

#What is Gig Economy? How will we want to see Bangladesh in 2021/ 2041?

#Briefly discuss the key financial organizations involved in the budget-making process in Bangladesh.

# Suppose you are the finance minister of Bangladesh. What kinds of plans will you undertake to develop the country?

#How can good governance ensure economic development in Bangladesh?

#How can e-governance/ digitalization ensure economic development in Bangladesh?

Mujib Borsho observing from March 2020 to March 2021

Mujib Borsho is being observed from March 2020 to March 2021 

March 2020 to March 2021 is being observed as “Mujib Borsho” (the Year of Mujib) across Bangladesh. To mark the birth centenary of Bangabandhu, Prime Minister and AL Chief Sheikh Hasina has announced the year-long programmes. The timeframe is very important for the history and future of the country as Bangabandhu’s 100th birth anniversary program titled Mujib Borsho” (from March 2020 to March 2021) will be followed by the golden jubilee celebration of Bangladesh's independence in 2021(26 March). 

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has decided that UNESCO together with Bangladesh will celebrate the 'Mujib Borsho', Prime minister Sheikh Hasina announces. To pay the debt of the great leader, Father of the Nation, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, 'Mujib Borsho' is being celebrated with the participation of mass people at the government and non-government levels. Father of the Nation’s Homecoming Day, AL’s founding anniversary, National Mourning Day and Jail Killing Day will be commemorated in coordination with the ‘Mujib Borsho’. 

The Prime minister of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina has also warned her leaders and activists not to do excesses or overreaction while observing Mujib year.

Indian’s Ban on Onion and Cow Export to Bangladesh & Its Effects

Impact of The Indian’s Ban on Onion and Cows Export to Bangladesh: A blessing or curse

Some say that everything has its positive and negative sides in its own ways. India banned onion and cows export to its friend and neighbouring country, Bangladesh

Consequences of The Indian’s Ban on Cows Export to Bangladesh (Pros & Cons)
The price for cows and other animals has gone high and the people of Bangladesh had to buy meat at a higher price. Since the Muslim majority country, they (90% of BD people) sacrifice halal animals (cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, and camels) in the name of almighty Allah at the time of Eid al-Adha (locally known as Korbani Eid). During the time of animal sacrifice festival, the price of sacrificial animal remains highest.

Because of the high price and profit, cattle business in Bangladesh has flourished and many unemployed people involved in the cattle farm business. Now it has become an emerging source of income generation for the local entrepreneurs and dairy farmers (small and mid-level businesspersons). Due to the new business, animals for Eid slaughtering stay in stock at a good price and it is a win-win situation for both the buyers and the sellers. 

Bangladesh has now achieved self-sufficiency in animals and it has profoundly reduced cattle imports from Myanmar and India. The meat industry has also prevented virus attack from foreign meat.

Results of The Indian’s Ban on Onion Export to Bangladesh (Advantages & Disadvantages)
The sudden Indian’s ban on onion export has created a crisis in Bangladesh. Because of the continuous demand and price hike, the BD people are trying to consume less onion and avoid onion in food. The restaurants are using onion less and increase the food price.  The government of Bangladesh is mitigating the crisis by importing onion from several countries (Egypt, Pakistan, Turkey, Myanmar, China) by air and sea. The government also sells those imported essential cooking ingredient through the Trading Corporation of Bangladesh (TCB – a govt body). Scientists of agriculture universities and agriculture research institutes are also trying to find alternatives. All endeavours to tame the skyrocketing onion price have not seen success because syndicates are taking the advantages of the export ban.

However, raising domestic onion production and becoming a self-sufficient like the country did after cattle ban from India should be the main motto. Bangladesh has unemployment problems and it also has demographic dividend advantages.

Nowadays, not only traditional farmers but also by educated youths involve in commercial agribusiness. In Bangladesh, those who are the actual producer and grower of food are usually poor and uneducated. A revolution is required in the agriculture sector. Our agriculture business will be developed if farmers are well-educated and smart to know modern production and marketing method like in Europe and the USA.

There is no option but to turn these challenges into opportunities and make more businessmen in the country. From meat production to grain cultivation, vegetables and fruits production, smart people should think about it and come forward to do business. Furthermore, the government also needs to motivate the young generation not to wait for govt jobs only but to become entrepreneurs and give others jobs.  We will reduce dependency on every sector if the business is grown and run well.

It must be kept in mind that cattle owners must be stopped to inject harmful substances (injections of steroid, hormone) into animals in the name of fattening. The farmers must be encouraged to utilize composts and green fertilizers in agriculture production.


The Major Challenges of Bangladesh Foreign Policy

The Key Challenges of Foreign Policy in Bangladesh
Bangladesh, a South Asian country, is located in a conflicted region and peace may be a dream in the area. India, Pakistan and China have an uneasy political relationship and rivalries. Moreover, Kashmir disputes aggravate the bitterness of their bilateral relations. Bangladesh has also unsettled issues with its close neighbours.

Rohingya Issues, Myanmar & Friends
About 1 million Rohingya refugees fled from Myanmar taking shelter in Bangladesh. International communities help to donate money and to provide foods to the refugees but Bangladesh has not received support from its close friends. As Myanmar has a strategic location and lots to give, China, India and Japan are investing in the country (Burma).

Balancing relationship with different countries
Due to the geopolitical advantage, many influential countries are now giving much importance to Bangladesh. The country has to balance its relationship with these big players (US-Rus, China, Japan & India).

Bangladesh aborted Sonadia deep seaport project with China in 2016. India had shown a concern that it would bring China’s direct presence closer to Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India.

Chinese 'debt trap'
A big challenging question is - Is Bangladesh going to fall in a 'debt trap' of China? China and Bangladesh have made numerous infrastructure deals (billions worth). However, some are concern that dependence on Chinese money will force Dhaka indebted to Beijing although these investments promise advantages.

A love-hate relationship with India?
The changes in the government of Bangladesh affect the relations with its neighbouring country India. There is some sort of mistrust and the love-hate relationship between India (the world’s largest democracy) and Bangladesh.

The sharing of river Teesta’s waters:  Indian PM Narendra Modi has committed on the fair share of Teesta River’s water, but nothing happens.

Border killing: Although India has committed to zero border deaths, shooting and killings, unfortunately, continue at the India & Bangladesh border by India’s Border Security Force (BSF). It is also worth mentioning that the picture of Felani's body hanging on the border fence caught international media attention and created much anger among Bangladeshi citizens. The India & Bangladesh border has been termed as one of the most dangerous borders in the world.

Cows and Onion Crisis: Following the cow trade ban, legal cattle trade from India has shrunk but cow smuggling is increased significantly in the border.

Bangladesh also faced a huge demand and price hike crisis due to the Indian’s ban on onion export to Bangladesh. Bangladesh is trying to mitigate the problem by raising domestic onion production in the future.

Muhorir River & Char: The disputes on settling the boundary along the midstream of the Muhuri River is one of the unsolved issues between the two countries. Despite repeated requests from the government of Bangladesh, India keeps the disputes hanging.

World Bank & the Padma Bridge Project Scam
World Bank (WB) blocked its promised finance for constructing the Padma Multipurpose Bridge Project because of corruption conspiracy (2012) among Bangladeshi government officials with the key stakeholders. However, it was told (PM) that Muhammad Yunus stopped WB funding by using his relations with Hillary Clinton (the ex-US Secretary of State).

Money Laundering / Money Flight
Dishonest businessmen in Bangladesh generate capital flights (money smuggling) through opening fake LCs, over & under-invoicing of imports or hundi. The Bangladesh Financial Intelligence Unit (BFIU) and National Board of Revenue (NBR), the Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC), police and law enforcement agencies are trying to prevent money laundering but they have failed.

Drugs and smuggling
Bangladesh has become a supermarket for traffickers who buy the drugs from factories in Myanmar (a hub of ya’ba smuggling and trading) and India at cheap rates and sell in Bangladesh at higher price.

Migration & Remittance issue
Exports of labours from Bangladesh to the Middle East has declined profoundly for multiple factors, for instance: the higher migration cost, limited employment opportunities & promised salaries, violence against women workers, armed conflicts and lack of government initiatives to protect migrants etc. The manpower market is shrinking steadily. 

Terrorism and Extremism
After the attack on the Holey Artisan cafe in Dhaka (July 2016), a deadly extremist attack, there was a fear of growing extremism in Bangladesh but it has not happened thanks to the present government of Bangladesh. To stop terrorism and extremism, Anti-Terrorism Unit (ATU) and Counter-Terrorism and Transnational Crime (CTTC) have been established.

Imbalanced International Trade with China And India

Shortage of Bangladesh Diplomatic Missions Abroad

In foreign policy, friends are often changeable and there is no permanent friend or foe.  Only self-interest is constant (the real thing).

What should Bangladesh do?
Will BD make good friends with the influential countries who can help the country (without increasing enemies)?

Further Reading

Impact of CAA & NRC on India’s Neighbour Bangladesh

Effects of CAA & NRC on India’s Neighbouring country Bangladesh  

Neither the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) nor National Register of Citizens (NRC) was blocked in India. Bangladesh may face negative consequences from these acts. These laws will grant citizenship to people from non-Muslim communities (religious minority - Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian faiths only) fleeing persecution in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The new system violates secular doctrine/ principle of the Indian constitution and discriminates against Muslims. The laws have sparked protests and millions of people come out to roads across India. The ruling Indian government under the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) is convincing protests and protesters to stop. 

The grave concern is that people who will not prove their claims to Indian citizenship under the laws will flee Bangladesh. They (Muslims & Bengali-speaking people from Assam) have to act so to avoid detention camps. These likelihoods of influx of frustrated people from India has become true since the border guards of Bangladesh has recently detained 238 Indian citizens (December 2019) attempting to escape persecution in India.

In 2019 (December), Abul Kalam (AK) Abdul Momen (the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Bangladesh) and Asaduzzaman Khan (Home Minister of BD) postponed their visits to Delhi at a time of protests against Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA). 

Bangladesh-India relationship under the ruling BJP led govt and the present Bangladeshi (Awami League - AL) Government has now reached “the golden age”. Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has told Gulf News during an interview - 

“We don’t understand why they (Indian govt) did it. It was not necessary.”

However, she also mentioned that the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) is an internal matter of India.

The Present Prospects of Bangladesh Foreign Policy

The Current Prospects of Bangladesh in International Affairs: What is happening now?

Countries make friends with others because they can help each other in need.

1/ The close tie with India
the Bangladesh government under the leadership of PM Sheikh Hasina has a good relationship with its neighbouring country, India.

Swapping enclave: The long waited India-Bangladesh enclave exchange deal was implemented (July 31 in 2015) by the two governments. Now 111 Indian enclaves inside Bangladesh and 51 Bangladeshi enclaves in India are attached to the respective nations. A chitmahal or enclave is described as a sovereign piece of land fully surrounded by another sovereign country.

High-level official visits occur between the two countries on a regular basis.

Visa processing and travelling to India have become easier.

Trade and business relationship: so many treaties signed

Power plants:  Rampal coal-fired power plant (1320 MW) is being set up by Bangladesh India Friendship Power Company Limited (BIFPCL), a joint venture between Bangladesh's BPDB and India's NTPC.

The transit and transshipments: Bangladesh is going to allow transhipment of Indian products via Mongla and Chittagong Seaports (from January 2020) without charging transit fees and customs duties. However, India will be required to pay taxes for using ports and pay fees for using roads. Time as well as distance has gone down to 1/3 for transporting products through Bangladesh instead of present Indian routes.

For the educational needs, the Indian government provides scholarships to students who are descendants of Muktijoddhas.

2/ Solving maritime dispute with India and Myanmar
By the judgment of ITLOS (2012), Bangladesh’s sovereign rights in the Bay of Bengal is now recognised and guaranteed. Bangladesh has also finished an old dispute over a sea border with its neighbouring country, India through the Court of Arbitration. The undisputed rights help the country to promote its blue economy (fish and natural resources beneath). 

3/ Good relationship with Russia
The Rooppur nuclear power plant is being built in Pabna with cooperation with Russia. Moreover, Russia provides scholarships to the Bangladeshi students to study nuclear science in their country so the trained officials can run the nuclear plant.

Bangladesh buys helicopters and other military equipment from Russia (the world’s second-largest weapons exporter). Moreover, Russian Helicopters will train BGB members for operating and maintaining helicopters and military hardware.

Bangladesh imports RMG, seafood and leather items to Russia and Russia exports machinery equipment, fertilizers, crops, raw materials for the textile industry and so on to Bangladesh.

4/ Japan and Bangladesh relation
Japan is always friendly towards Bangladesh. The Meghna Bridge was built with assistance from the Japanese government. Japan's International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has committed to give $400 million for the Padma Bridge. Japan usually cooperates the country with the construction of development projects because Japan can sell cars and other electronics parts and machines to receiving countries. Furthermore, it wants to gain supports from Bangladesh for the bid to join the UN Security Council, and secure markets for their finished goods and services.

Matarbari deep seaport: With funding from Japan (JICA), the Bangladesh government is going to build a deep seaport near Cox's Bazar. Japan also assists Bangladesh to construct a coal-fired power plant (1,200-megawatt) and a modern township at Matarbari (Maheshkhali Upazila, Cox's Bazar).

5/ Sino-Bangladesh relations
In 1976, 5 years after Bangladesh’s independence, China-Bangladesh diplomatic relations, friendship and cooperation were established and consolidated.

Bangladesh imports most goods from China and China is the top trading partner of the country. Chinese government involves in economic and technical cooperation, investment, power, culture and tourism. The country will also aid rice to the Rohingya. China has shown an interest in joining in blue economy of Bangladesh.

Due to the geopolitical importance of Bangladesh, China has deepened its strategic influence in the region (India's immediate neighbours) with its economic expansion. Keeping close defence ties with Bangladesh, China, a reliable and affordable source, provides weapons, equipment, military technology and training to the Bangladeshi armed forces. Moreover, 2 Ming class submarines were also imported from China.

The Padma Bridge: China Major Bridge Engineering Company builds a major road-rail project across the Padma River and Exim Bank of China provides money for constructing the rail link accompanying the Padma Bridge.

Payra Deep-sea Port in Patuakhali, a Belt and Road Initiative project is being constructed by two Chinese state-owned enterprises named CHEC and CSCEC. Outside of the port area, the Payra Power Plant (1,320 MW coal-based power plants) is being implemented by Bangladesh-China Power Company Limited (BCPCL) with funds from Chinese Exim Bank.

6/ The United States of America and Bangladesh
Bangladesh’s biggest export market is in the USA. The United States exports agricultural products, machinery, iron and steel products to Bangladesh. The U.S.A. imports apparel, footwear, textile products, headgear, and agricultural products from Bangladesh. 

The USA has provided money to improve the lives of Bangladeshis and the U.S.A. involvement with the Government of Bangladesh is helping produce more food, construct more roads, and develop more teachers, skilled health care providers, and soldiers.  Moreover, the USA provides humanitarian support (the largest donor to the Rohingya refugee crisis) to about 1 million Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh.  

7/ Bangladesh & Middle Eastern countries
The Middle East is the biggest international job market (the largest share of remittance) for Bangladeshi people. The country also depends on remittance and oil from the Middle Eastern countries. 

The incidents and tragedies will continue!

From Nimtoli (2010) to Chawkbazar (2019), Old Dhaka

Bangladesh has recently faced a deadly accident and it is a fire incident in Chawkbazar, Old Dhaka. It is a big shock to many. But is it really? Calm down, people!

It is not new to the people of Bangladesh and they have become accustomed to it. On 3 June 2010, a big night for some people, wedding parties continued on the roof the building in Nimtoli area. The worst incident happened when an electrical transformer exploded with fire and fire was fanned by flammable items (chemicals). The transformer blast was caused by a fire from a plastic factory's chemicals stored in houses. The factory caught fire from a stove pit near to it where cooks were cooking meals for the wedding engagement party. The density of that area, narrow lanes of Old Dhaka made it more complex for firefighters to stop the blaze. In 2010, the Nimtoli fire in Old Dhaka killed approximately 124 people.

However, nothing has changed. We have not learned anything from the hellfire accident. Chemical warehouses continue to operate in Old Dhaka illegally and old buildings are not demolished. Illegal establishments are at every street of old Dhaka.

It has been a time bomb and it has just blasted into Chawkbazar in Old Dhaka. This fire incident was in a multi-hazardous zone where there were transformers, cars with flammable cylinder bottles and a lot of chemical liquids.  Helicopters were used to spray water and douse the fire as an attempt to aid the firefighters.   

The major challenges the firefighters faced are narrow roads and water shortage in the area. The staircases of old buildings made it more difficult to handle fire service equipment and tools to work on the area. It is now confirmed that the fire was initiated at a four-story building.

So, what are the reasons for such continuous disasters?
Corruption, greed, and negligence kill people and destroy our resources. We must act now and it is time. We have to clear and broaden the roads by breaking the illegal shops, houses, and other infrastructures. We must shift factories and chemical warehouses and ensure enough safety in the area.  Strike a hot metal (iron) with a tool before it cools. You have to shape a metal body while it is hot otherwise it will be difficult and people will forget. If these steps cannot be taken immediately and properly, you know what can happen.

The tragedy is happening in front of our eyes and we see and we mourn and forget. And it continues ……….

6 Dimensions of Cultural Model by Geert Hofstede and Organizational Behaviour & My Bengali Character

We are going to discuss the cultural dimensions theory of Psychologist Dr Geert Hofstede. It is a framework for cross-cultural communication and we will explain and compare more than 5 countries’ culture and how it influences people’s minds and organizational culture and structure. It is also relevant to the government and non-governmental organizations.  

My Bangali Characteristics & Geert Hofstede's Six Dimension of Organisational Culture Model

Power Distance (PDI) & Yes Sir!

Power Distance refers to the extent to which unequal power distribution is expected and accepts by the less powerful members of organizations in a society. What is the attitude of Bangladeshi people towards inequality? They accept and promote the hierarchical order.

Dark Side: In some institutions, the boss is always right even if he is wrong. There is little room for innovation. Many have taken slavery to the artistic level of Leonardo Da Vinci. Now some people don’t bother to lick the feet of the superior. In a civilized society, they do networking but in an uncivilized society, some people abused the concept by oiling (tel-bajii). 

Positive side: in some cases, the top-down approach works well when people need instant outcome.



The dimension defines the social bond in a country. Hofstede has classified two kinds of society as an Individualist society and a Collectivist society.

In the individualist society, people are self-centred (‘I’). People are only worried about themselves, their families and very close relatives.

In a collectivist society, people belong to groups and take care of each other. “We” is more uttered and valued than “I”.  Seniors take care of juniors and subordinates obey seniors. It is a kind of give-&-take relationship.

Dark side: people sometimes sacrifice their comfort or do something which deviates from organizational goals because of group interests.

Due to the conspiracy of the Mir Jafar Gang, the subcontinent was being exploited by the British for 200 years. Traitors have always forgotten their existence and harmed themselves, joining hands with foreigners to satisfy their interests. They are good at stabbing each other bodies.



Masculinity focuses on achievements, power, heroism and assertiveness. Big in size is beautiful and quantity is important.  Gender roles are clear, meaning that men and women take separate roles in society. For example, a male is expected to be assertive, tough, and focus on material success, whereas women are expected to be modest and tender.

In feminine society, on the other hand, both men and women value the quality of life. The gender roles are flexible and men and women do not have separate roles, and they can switch their jobs.                        

In masculine culture, we often hear -

You have to be the best or get the best CGPA. Getting a government job is considered the best option for the life. Some people show their manhood by scolding rickshaw pullers or bus conductors.

Some of us are gentlemen for the lack of opportunity! Rickshaw pullers also try to take our opportunity when they get a chance. If it rains or at night you have to pay extra to get on the rickshaw. They will ask for more money if you are a girl. We are serious about halal food but we don’t bother about halal income.

Everyone wants to be a celebrity now. But they do not want to be honest; they want to take the short cut. We have seen youngsters who want to get viral on social media do such activities that do not make any sense.

Discrimination: Is it about gender inequality or discrimination? People with power and influence always exploit the less fortunate people. People now respect powerful and rich people more than well-educated people and gentleman.

In feminine culture, - You can do wherever you want to do or you love to do!


Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)

The dimension explains how well people in a country can cope with the unknown and anxiety. The society that wants to avoid uncertainty tends to develop more written rules, standards, and structures. They also try to avoid risk, conflicts and reach consensus.

In low uncertainty avoidance countries, a human is more comfortable with volatile and unstructured situations. Uncertainty and conflicts are considered natural and necessary. They promote creativity and individual choice, and initiatives.

One of the reasons for loving government jobs in South Asian countries is that they want stability and job security.


Long Term Orientation versus Short Term Normative Orientation (LTO)

Countries that score low (short-term) on this dimension prefer to maintain norms and traditions (time-honoured) while considering a social change with suspicion.

On the other hand, countries with high scores (long-term) encourage thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future taking the pragmatic approach.

In the business, the dimension is referred to as “(short-term) normative versus (long-term) pragmatic” (PRA). Sometimes, the term Monumentalism vs Flexhumility is used in the academic environment for the discussion.

Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR)

It refers to the extent to which human being try to control and manage their desires and impulses (Weak control - Indulgence & strong control – Restraint).


Societies with a high IVR score motivate relatively free gratification of individual’s drives and emotions (having fun and enjoying life). In a country with a low IVR score, more emphasis has been given to suppressing gratification and more regulation of people's behaviour.

Bangladesh is in a restrained country category.  

One of the hypocritical statements is that - Let's all get better. Let us blame ourselves not blaming them. This country is ours and faults are also mine. Let’s change. Is that so? Why should I take the blame for others?

What do you think? Feel free to comment.