Thursday, 15 April 2021

Motivation and Motivation Theories (old and modern theories)

The term motivation is very common thanks to motivational speakers and motivational videos on YouTube. However, do I know the motivation as a concept properly?

Definition of Motivation
What is motivation? Motivation is the combination of certain forces that cause a person to behave in a particular way. This process begins with unsatisfied needs and ends with a reduction in tension. Motivation keeps the organization moving, creates a work-stimulating and vibrant environment, and above all brings vitality to the employee's institutional and personal life.

With motivation, a manager can inspire, stimulate, persuade, push, provoke, trigger and incite employees to get things done. Motivation is a process that drives an employee to perform tasks spontaneously, as a result of which he or she strives to exert his or her maximum strength in achieving organizational goals. Motivation is the desire to work harder to achieve organizational goals. Motivation is latent energy inherent in the human heart which, when aroused, man uses his maximum energy to achieve the goal. Motivation is a need-fulfilling process.


Motivation in the Organization and Management
One of the most challenging and important tasks that managers do is motivate and give reward to employees. Motivation is a complex task as there are different types of staffs and they have a different mentality and a different attitude towards work. Some are innately unhappy in nature. Some are a little satisfied. Therefore, efforts have to be made to keep the employees satisfied keeping in view the mental structure of the person, educational and social background, political-religious ideology, type of work etc. 

An employee may be motivated for a reason, another may not be encouraged for that reason. one employee may be motivated only if his salary is increased, another may be instigated by simple praise. For all these reasons, the task of motivation is very complicated for the manager. Due to the importance of motivation in the institutional arena, we will discuss various issues related to motivation and theories on this page.

Early motivation theories
Early motivation theories are still valid and useful because many practising managers still, use old motivational models. Theories like Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, McGregor’s Theories X and Y, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, and McClelland’s three-needs theory laid the foundation from which modern motivation models have been developed and prospering.

Contemporary Theories of Motivation
Modern approaches represent new explanations of employee motivation supported by current research. These contemporary motivation theories include:

Goal-setting theory
The theory shows that specific goals improve performance. If difficult goals are accepted by employees, then they can produce higher performance.
The Goals should be SMART.

Reinforcement theory
According to the theory, behaviour is a function of its consequences

Equity Theory
People usually compare themselves with others. In an organization, employees compare their job’s input-outcomes ratio with that of relevant others and then corrects any inequity

Expectancy Theory
People tend to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the people.

High-involvement work practices and job design theory are new theories and researchers are continuously building theories to improve the lives of people.

Conclusion
There is no end to what people want. A person may be looking for a handful of food or shelter at the moment. Another may be seeking to seize political power; Another may be hoping for a favourite reunion. People have been doing different things all their lives. At the root of this diverse course of action is some kind of motivation. Some motivations keep people active and active for a while, while others motivate people to work for a long time, even for a lifetime.

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