Sunday, 18 April 2021

Transactional Leadership vs Transformational Leadership: Differences between Transactional Leadership and Transformational Leadership Styles

Transactional Leadership

Transactional leadership focuses on results (outputs and outcome) by concentrating on the system and structure of an organization. Transactional leaders organize, lead, guide and control followers to work toward established goals and targets by exchanging rewards-penalty for their productivity. According to the leadership model (sometimes referred to as managerial leadership), managers provide followers with something they want in exchange for getting something they want. Transactional leadership theory is likely to succeed in a crisis or in projects requiring linear and specific processes.


In most cases, leaders in large institutions, public corporations, international projects and military operations are transactional leaders.  This style is useful for big organizations (public or private), such as Hewlett-Packard (HP company). Bill Gates is a transactional leader. Magneto from X-Men movies has the same leadership. These leaders try to keep order, rules and regulations to reach goals on time. This widely used style is often applied by all level managers.


The famous style of leadership was first explained by Max Weber in 1947 and then by Bernard Bass in 1981. The German sociologist divided leadership styles (authority) into 3 categories: traditional, charismatic and rational-legal, or bureaucratic.


Like theory X of Motivation by McGregor, the leaders take a pessimistic view of their followers. The subordinates have to be monitored to control to get the job done. Transactional leaders may not be a good fit for places where innovative ideas and creativity are requited and valued.


Transformational Leadership

Transformational leaders want to think out of the box and go beyond the system and boundary to change existing thoughts, techniques for extraordinary outcomes which bring better results and the greater good for the management and workers. Transformational leadership seeks to motivate and inspire (transforms) employees to attain remarkable results. Under the transformational leadership style, workers are given autonomy over specific tasks. Conflict is welcome and regarded as a normal phenomenon in their authority because it can encourage innovation and new ideas.  

The key features of transformational leaders are:

1. They are creative and looking for new things.

2. Hard worker and Empower its followers and delegate the tasks

3. They are communicative and keep followers engaged.

4. Visionary

5. Chiasmatic

6. Passionate and enthusiastic


Different researches confirm that transformational leaders are more effective, higher performers, more promotable. They can ensure higher levels of productivity, employee satisfaction, creativity, and corporate entrepreneurship. The term "transformational leadership" was coined by James V. Downton (sociologist) in 1973.


Examples: Richard Branson (Virgin), Steve Jobs (Apple), Jeff Bezos (Amazon), Nelson Mandela, Barack Obama, Martin Luther King Jr., MS Dhoni (former Indian cricket team captain), Mashrafe (former Bangladesh cricket team captain) 

Differences between Transactional Leadership Style and Transformational Leadership Style

Transactional and transformational leaders are different but they are related and essential in an institution.  Transformational leadership theory develops from the transactional leadership model. Both are Modern and Contemporary Theories. 

Transactional Leadership Style

Transformational Leadership Style

Favour rigid system and structured policies, procedures

Favour followers and innovation

Thrive on following rules and doing things correctly

Go beyond boundary

Focused on short-term goals

Look into long term goals



Change and conflicts are not welcome

Change and conflicts are considered normal.

Social exchange (give and take relationship)

Advice and guidance to the employees.

Reward and punishments (carrot-stick model)

Personal attention to the followers

Bill Gates

Richard Branson 


Best Leadership Styles and How to Find Your Leadership Types? Leadership Styles explained with examples

Types or Styles of Leadership

Leadership Styles: There are some qualities, skills and styles of leadership that can easily distinguish a leader from a worker. Not everyone can lead and some people have got this ability from the family and genes. This is why it was thought that those who could be leaders acquired these skills from birth. However, it turned out that the ability to be a leader is not something that everyone gets from birth, but there are many who, through their hard work, present themselves as leaders. Everyone has their style and personality.


Different styles of leadership are seen in different organizations. There are 3 types:


1/ Autocratic leadership: In such leadership, the leader keeps all the power in his hands and does not allow the employees to take part in the decision making. He imposes his own decision on them. In this case, attempts are made to get the job done by intimidating and punishing the workers. The leader is to be feared and his command should not be questioned.


One way communication is maintained and there is a low chance of socializing among followers. Power distance is high. However, the main advantage of this leadership is that the decision-making process is very quick. Such a leadership style is not liked by the followers. The workers are not fond of such leadership. If the leader is not present in the work station, the worker may not work properly. This kind of leadership is seen in various mills and factories where workers are less skilled.


2. Democratic leadership or participatory leadership:

In this kind of leadership, the leader decides on something taking the opinion of the staffs. The advantage of such leadership is that employees are satisfied and their interest in work increases day by day. Ownership remains within the followers. However, the decisions may take longer.


At present, democratic leadership is popular and can be seen in many places. In various meetings, the leader made decisions by discussing with the workers and having group discussions.


3 / Laissez-faire style or hands-off leadership:

The leader allows his team to make decisions and implement them. Group members can finish work as they see fit. Under such leadership, junior officers enjoy unfettered freedom. In this case, the leader only sets the goal but the rest of the officials have to play a role in implementing the goal.


However, due to a lack of proper guidance, there is a possibility of chaos in the work in different departments. To succeed, the employees have to be efficient, intelligent and careful.


Leaders in new startup companies are using this style in many cases. In the hospitals, instructions to the surgeons and doctors are given and they can work with their skills and freedom. Many companies are using this style to work from home in corona situations. If the purpose of an organization can be solved by working from home, managers and leaders should not have any worries about the organizational goals!

Thursday, 15 April 2021

Motivation and Motivation Theories (old and modern theories)

The term motivation is very common thanks to motivational speakers and motivational videos on YouTube. However, do I know the motivation as a concept properly?

Definition of Motivation
What is motivation? Motivation is the combination of certain forces that cause a person to behave in a particular way. This process begins with unsatisfied needs and ends with a reduction in tension. Motivation keeps the organization moving, creates a work-stimulating and vibrant environment, and above all brings vitality to the employee's institutional and personal life.

With motivation, a manager can inspire, stimulate, persuade, push, provoke, trigger and incite employees to get things done. Motivation is a process that drives an employee to perform tasks spontaneously, as a result of which he or she strives to exert his or her maximum strength in achieving organizational goals. Motivation is the desire to work harder to achieve organizational goals. Motivation is latent energy inherent in the human heart which, when aroused, man uses his maximum energy to achieve the goal. Motivation is a need-fulfilling process.

Motivation in the Organization and Management
One of the most challenging and important tasks that managers do is motivate and give reward to employees. Motivation is a complex task as there are different types of staffs and they have a different mentality and a different attitude towards work. Some are innately unhappy in nature. Some are a little satisfied. Therefore, efforts have to be made to keep the employees satisfied keeping in view the mental structure of the person, educational and social background, political-religious ideology, type of work etc. 

An employee may be motivated for a reason, another may not be encouraged for that reason. one employee may be motivated only if his salary is increased, another may be instigated by simple praise. For all these reasons, the task of motivation is very complicated for the manager. Due to the importance of motivation in the institutional arena, we will discuss various issues related to motivation and theories on this page.

Early motivation theories
Early motivation theories are still valid and useful because many practising managers still, use old motivational models. Theories like Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, McGregor’s Theories X and Y, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, and McClelland’s three-needs theory laid the foundation from which modern motivation models have been developed and prospering.

Contemporary Theories of Motivation
Modern approaches represent new explanations of employee motivation supported by current research. These contemporary motivation theories include:

Goal-setting theory
The theory shows that specific goals improve performance. If difficult goals are accepted by employees, then they can produce higher performance.
The Goals should be SMART.

Reinforcement theory
According to the theory, behaviour is a function of its consequences

Equity Theory
People usually compare themselves with others. In an organization, employees compare their job’s input-outcomes ratio with that of relevant others and then corrects any inequity

Expectancy Theory
People tend to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the people.

High-involvement work practices and job design theory are new theories and researchers are continuously building theories to improve the lives of people.

There is no end to what people want. A person may be looking for a handful of food or shelter at the moment. Another may be seeking to seize political power; Another may be hoping for a favourite reunion. People have been doing different things all their lives. At the root of this diverse course of action is some kind of motivation. Some motivations keep people active and active for a while, while others motivate people to work for a long time, even for a lifetime.

Leadership Theories from Early to Modern Leadership Model

Who is the leader and what is leadership?

Are you a leader? Or

Do you want to be a leader?

You maybe a general person but you have certain abilities to alter someone or something. 

Let’s find out …..


Leadership is a complex or simple process to be understood or implemented. It depends on you and some factors or context. Don't you understand?


Leader and leadership

A leader is a person who can guide, affect and control a person or a group of people. Leadership is a process through which one or more people are influenced to achieve the objectives of the team or organization. Leadership is a strategy to influence others, not to use force. Managers should lead employees because leading is one of the management functions.


You can find leaders anywhere. We see leaders not only in political parties but also in playgrounds, in educational institutions, in classrooms and so on. The difference between a leader and a worker is obvious. A leader is a person who controls the whole process. A leader can easily gain the help and support of other people to get a job done. On the one hand, he gets work from the workers, on the other hand, the responsibility of listening to the workers also falls on his shoulders. The leaders show the dream to the workers, but at first, he has to see and understand the dream.


A/ Early Leadership Theories in Organization and Management


Trait Theory and Great Man Theory

In ancient times, it was thought that leaders acquire power because of their birth in certain families. At the time, the idea of ​​'Leaders are born, not made' was popular. According to the Great Man Theory and the Trait Theory, leaders are not created, they are born - as we see in India, the family system of the Congress party (the Gandhi family: Indira Gandhi - Rajiv Gandhi - Sonia Gandhi - Rahul Gandhi … ).


People usually get some styles, qualities from their family environment. The body structure has also effects on people. Employees can be distinguished from the leader by looking at the qualities of the leader. They are born with the right ability and qualities to lead. They get all these powers from their family.


They have innate qualities and skills that make the leader great and these are things that cannot be taught. Leaders are qualified to hold office because of their special inborn qualities. But later, theories and research have shown that many have established themselves as leaders through their education and hard work. Now everyone understands ‘Leaders are made, not born.


B/ Behavioural Theories of Leadership - Behavioural Approaches to Leadership

Behavioural Theory: Leadership depends on the behaviour of the leader. The behaviour of successful leaders will be different from that of failed leaders. Certain behaviours set leaders apart from others.


Four Studies on Behavioral Theories -

a. The University of Iowa studies explained three leadership styles (the autocratic style,  the democratic style and the laissez-faire style) to find out the best and suitable leadership types for leading. It was revealed that group members were more satisfied with a democratic leader than an autocratic one.


More on three leadership styles - Click 


b. The Ohio State studies found two dimensions of leader behaviour - initiating structure and consideration.

The initiating structure specifies the role of the leader and what his / her staffs need to do. It also includes arranging tasks to achieve the goals of the organization and figuring out how to relate to each other. The work must be completed within the standard process and due date.

Consideration means being considerate of followers’ ideas and feelings. It includes good relationships, trust, respect, feelings between leaders and staffs. Employees' opinions and feelings should be valued.

The leader who does well in both of these dimensions will be more successful at performing the teamwork and gaining the satisfaction of the group members, but not always.


c. The University of Michigan studies has revealed two dimensions of the leader's behaviour -

Production-Oriented: it emphasis on work aspects in the organization.

Worker-Oriented: it gives importance to social relationships and cares for the needs of workers.

Employee-oriented leaders were able to achieve high group productivity and greater job satisfaction.


d. The Leadership Grid

The Leadership Grid is a model of behavioural leadership developed by Robert R. Blake and Jane Mouton in the early 1960s. Formerly known as the managerial grid, the leadership grid used two behavioural dimensions “concern for people” (the vertical part of the grid) and “concern for production” (the horizontal part of the grid) and evaluated a leader’s use of these behaviours, ranking them on a scale from 1 (low) to 9 (high).


1.1 Impoverished Management/ Weak leadership

At this stage, the management pays the least attention to both the employee and the production. Managers keep themselves away from all kinds of troubles.


1.9 Country Club Management/ The Accommodating Style / Employee-centric leadership

In this situation, the leaders focus more on the entertainment, well-being, and welfare of the employees instead of the production of an organization. It creates a friendly environment in the organization although production is not considered important here.


9.1 Task Management / The Dictatorial Style  / Production-Oriented Leadership

In this case, the highest concern is given to the production factor. Therefore, the leader has to pay special attention to increasing productivity so that the interpersonal relationship does not create any problem. This stage is called the stage of control and governance. The manager pays maximum attention to production and pays the least attention to employees. In this, the importance of the manager towards the employees is less.  


Managers want to keep employees tied through different rules and penalties to meet company goals. This theory is based on Douglas Mc Gregor's Theory X.


5.5 Middle-of-the-Road Management / The Status Quo Style

This stage is called the stage of balance and compromise. The manager balances the needs of the employees and the goals of the company. In this way, equal care is taken towards the employees and production. The leader shows equal concern for the production and staff of the organization. As a result, the leader can manage the organization properly by maintaining balance.


9.9 Team Management   

At the format, maximum attention is given to both employee and production. The manager pays more attention to teamwork and commitment to employees. As a result, employees consider themselves a part of the company. The highest concern from the leader is undeniable for better productivity and staffs. A leader has to keep a sharp eye on production and the opportunities of the workers. This style of leadership has been identified as the most successful and effective.


Unfortunately, this grid model did not answer the question of who made a manager an effective leader; It simply provided a framework for leadership style. But it concludes that a 9.9 style (a leader who is concerned about production and has a high level of concern for the people) is most effective. However, there is no evidence to support this conclusion.


Understanding Leadership Grid has shown that putting undue emphasis on one region, focusing on the other, suppresses productivity. The model suggests that team leadership styles, which show a high level of concern for both production and people, can increase employee productivity. There are, of course, some limitations to the leadership grid.

C/ Contingency Theories of Leadership

If the leader's style or behaviour is effective in one situation, it cannot be said that it will work in another situation. Due to the various factors, the situation is changing inside and outside the organization and the success of the leader depends on the situation. There is no best approach to leadership, you have to act according to the situation.


Fiedler’s model

Effective group performance depending on a match between the leader’s style and favourable situation. As a result, the leader can easily control and influence the whole thing. If the situation matches the style of the leader, good performance will be obtained. To be most effective and successful, a leader must be able to adapt to his style to different situations.


Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory  

In this theory, followers or staff is very important. Whatever the leader does, it depends on the performance of employees or teamwork. Followers can accept or reject the leader. Readiness refers to the ability and desire of employees to perform a specific task.


The path-goal model theory

The leader's job is to help employees achieve their goals and to provide the necessary guidance to ensure that their goals are consistent with the organization's goals.


                                    D/ Modern Theories of Leadership

Transactional Leadership and Transformational Leadership

Leadership depends on the quality of the leader and staff, and the environment.

Friday, 19 March 2021

How to Get 7+ in IELTS Writing within a Short period? IELTS Writing Task 2

IELTS Writing Task 2: How to Get IELTS 7+ in the Writing Section in a Short period? 

IELTS Writing Part Two

You need to prove that you know English well and you are capable to write in different styles.

1. Different structures for writing: Utilize a mixture of simple, complex and compound sentences. Conditional sentences, active and passive voices are crucial for good marks.

2. Use questions and negative sentences if it is possible.

3. Parts of Speech – a different form of words: Variation in writing style is very crucial.

4. Don’t just use synonyms for different sentences as it needs contexts for various words.

5. Practice.

6.    If you don’t know anyone or you cannot go to someone who can check your writing then install Grammarly.  

7.    It checks our grammar and spelling automatically.


Full body Structure of the IELTS Writing Part 2:


Body 1

Body 2



Structure of Introduction:

Introductory sentence – a neutral opinion of the subject. (Background of the topic.)

Rephrasing the main topic or question is given in the examination. 

Tuesday, 9 March 2021

General Administrative Theory & 14 Principles of Management by Henri Fayol

Henri Fayol, a French mining engineer, mining executive and director of mines, is the father of modern management. Fayol's contribution to management is immense and unforgettable. He was born in France in 1917. 

He developed a general theory of administration (Fayolism). He has mentioned 14 management principles for business and industry in his groundbreaking book, General and Industrial Management. These principles have been adopted in various organizations as the basic principles of management.


The Fourteen Principles of Management:

1/ Division of Work

According to the policy of the division of Labor, it is recommended that the work of each employee should be divided and specified so that their labour can be used efficiently. As a result of this principle, every employee and executive can acquire specialized knowledge in the workplace. The more specialized a person is, the more efficiently he will be able to perform his duties.


2/ Authority and Responsibilities

Managers and executive officials should be given legitimate power to carry out their responsibilities. In addition to delegating authority to employees to perform duties, they also have to be given the necessary responsibilities. But a balance between authority and responsibility must be ensured. Balanced responsibilities are essential for the smooth activities of an organization.


3/ Discipline

Discipline is a combination of obedience, application, and respect. In every organization, discipline is crucial. What does the superior authority of the organization expect from its subordinate employees?


Necessary actions should be taken if works are not performed in a prescribed manner. As a part of the discipline policy, employees need to have respect for the rules and agreements made by the organization.


4/ Unity of Command

Each worker will receive instructions from a supervisor for a specific task. That means an employee will not have two or more bosses. Every employee of the organization will be kept under one boss and will accept his orders. Because when a worker works under two bosses, there will be chaos and a lack of discipline.


5/ Unity of Direction

There should be one plan. To achieve the plan or goal, managers should make and communicate a set of actions plans to the employees. So that officers will get instructions and perform all the tasks to implement the organizational goals.


6/ Subordination of Individual Interests to The General Interest

There should not be any conflict between the purpose of the organization and the interests of the individuals. The general interest of the organization will take precedence over the personal interest of the employees. Prioritize the interests of the organization.

Organization > Departments > Employees


7/ Remuneration:

Maximize the wages of workers by introducing fair wage and wage structure. Remuneration must be fair and there must be a reasonable way to pay it. Arrangements must be made to provide satisfaction.


8/ Centralization

The amount of centralization and decentralization of authority required by the organization should be calculated scientifically. Managers will have the ultimate authority in their own hands but with the right responsibilities, managers will delegate some of the authority to staff to facilitate and get the job done.


9/ Scalar Chain

The chain of authority flows from the top to the bottom of the organization. There will be a chain. The flow of authority and communication is indicated by the upward or downward motion. You can easily understand by looking at the organogram or organizational chat of a big corporation.



10/ Order

Two most important elements: people and materials. All materials and human resources should be in the right place at the right time. Every position should have the right and worthy person. On the other hand, the objects should be in place. According to this principle, every worker and other element are to be arranged in a way so that they can continue to do the right thing from their place at the right time.


11/ Equity

Managers should treat all employees equally and show fairness. Justice should be ensured to treat and pay salary, promotion and other facilities. In this way, loyalty and a positive attitude will be increased among the employees.


12/ Job Stability:

Management will be ineffective if employees are frequently transferred or fired for no reason. One of the principles of management is to increase the efficiency of the executive. For this purpose, the workforce needs job security and stability.  


13 Initiatives

the employees should be given the freedom to plan and initiate a plan. The manager has to encourage the initiative of the employees. Encouragement, inspiration and appropriate opportunities need to be created among the employees to innovate any new method. This increases their interest in the organization and they can show efficiency and effectiveness.


14 Esprit de corps

Where there is unity, there is strength. Managers need to inspire subordinates with teamwork, unity and a sense of brotherhood. Teamwork helps achieve the organization's goals. It is necessary to create a sense of unity among the workers by creating a team spirit. Many heads are better than one head.


Jules Henri Fayol has benefited the world by putting his principles into practice. Various writers have contributed to the development of management theories and model.

F. W. Taylor and Henri Fayol are among those who have contributed to the development of management theories. Taylor has worked for the steel company and seeing the success in his management, the company has promoted him at various times. He later became the chief engineer. He was also a consultant to steel mills. The principles of management that he introduced based on his life experience are known as Taylor's principles. Taylor was the first and foremost person in the field of management to introduce the principles of scientific management in the industry.

Bureaucratic Theory of Management and Love or Hate Relationship

All types of private and government organizations can have a bureaucratic style of management.  One of the great challenges for all of us that there is no alternative for the bureaucratic model of management for a large organization whether it is government or non-governmental organizations. Interestingly, Max Weber did not define bureaucracy. Weber researched organizations and tried to formulate an "ideal prototype" for organizations. For this, he has mentioned 6 principles or features and whenever these features exist in any place, it becomes a bureaucratic organizational form.

Laid the theoretical foundations about how large organizations should work, Max Weber was the first to introduce bureaucracy through the 'Legal and Rational Model'. Max Weber is the inventor of the ideal bureaucracy and regarded as the father of bureaucratic management.

The Bureaucratic Theory of Management

The features of Weber's bureaucracy are still evident in large private and government agencies, be they universities, MNCs, or hospitals. His theory has become the structural design of many large organizations today.

There can be bureaucracy in any organization - I mean - in all types of organizations!

The main features of bureaucracy according to Max Weber are six.

Sociologist Max Weber outlines six of the features of bureaucratic organization.

1. Division of Work:

The tasks required to carry out the objectives of the organization are distributed among the officers and employees as a daily duty of the office. All tasks are to be divided into smaller parts. The persons with a skill need to do the jobs with his skill. If you have knowledge of computer science and software engineering then you will have a job in the information technology section or IT department. As a result, the efficiency of the employee increases due to repeating one task over and over again.  The bureaucratic organization is based on the principle of division of labour and specialization. The working procedure of the bureaucratic organization is guided by law. In this, every employee has to perform his duties in his own field.

2. Hierarchies

Bureaucratic organizations follow the hierarchical policy, that is, there is a superior-inferior relationship. According to this principle, different positions are classified and organized. Every lower position is governed by a higher position. It is the order of the superior officer and lower officers. One can easily understand from the organizational chart of an organization that who will do what? Who will be responsible to whom?

This hierarchical principle is similar to the scalar chain of Henri Fayol. Hierarchical levels or steps refer to where each of the persons working at the lower level is subordinate to and responsible to the persons at the upper level.

3. Written rules and regulations: rules and regulations should be formal and written. People will not be confused. Excessive formality in bureaucracy, excessive rigidity of rules and procedure are given importance. Everything is done according to the rules. All work is routine.


4. Impersonality - Bureaucratic administration is a politically neutral organization. Since bureaucrats are not involved in politics, they carry out their duties in a regular manner, avoiding hatred and passion. The employee keeps his personal life separate from his administrative life. Equal rules and systems are for all.


5. Formal Selection - Appointments in administration are to be made on the basis of merit through competitive examinations. They are promoted on the basis of seniority and achievement. The process should be dependent on technical skill. For example BCS Recruitment and Promotion.


6. Career Orientation: The service of bureaucrats is permanent till a certain age. They are in service until they retire remaining in force. They remain even after the change of government. On the ground of criminal activities and some disabilities, they can be fired. They are professional and salaried. They receive salaries and allowances from the state treasury.

The Emergence and Importance of Bureaucratic Theory

Before the nineteenth century, the functions of the state and of various institutions were confined to a narrow range. The Industrial Revolution resulted in the creation of many businesses and factories. The process of urbanization increased as many people came to the city from the villages in search of work. And as the ideas of democracy and capitalism became popular, the functions of the state began to increase enormously.

The state has to perform various important and complex tasks for the betterment of the economic, social, political and cultural life of the individual. But it is not possible for a handful of political representatives to carry out these diverse tasks properly. So they have to rely on a large number of permanent and loyal government employees.

The importance of bureaucracy is growing with the increased work of the state. Lack of knowledge of political administrators (for examples making laws or setting government policy) is one of the big reasons. Most members of the legislature or ministers do not have the amount of general and technical knowledge and skills required. Therefore, they set the law or general policy of the government and entrust the responsibility of perfecting it to the bureaucrats who are permanent, prudent, and far-sighted and have gained experience by performing administrative tasks for a long time.

The role of bureaucrats in the implementation of government laws, policies, etc. is immense. Policies and judicial decisions made by the organization are worthless if not implemented. As a result, the basic objectives of the government remain ineffective. The practical implementation of government laws, policies, etc. depends on the sincerity, efficiency and cooperation of government employees. It is impossible to maintain the existence of a modern government without the help of permanent government employees.

Criticism of Max Weber's Bureaucracy

Max Weber's bureaucracy theory has been criticized several times in movies and documentaries and so on. Any organization needs different rules and regulations to operate and if the principles do not solve the work of the people or the customer, then why the existence of the organization!  

The good side of strict rules - the rules need to be implemented in the same way.

The bad side of strict rules - Slow - the patient had died before the doctor came!

Red tape -  Rules and regulations do not work and some corrupted officials can keep the file longer and ask for a bribe.

Inefficiency and irrational

Some tasks need to be implemented by lobbying and speed money.

Creativity and initiatives are limited.

The bureaucracy described by Weber is much like scientific management in its ideology. Both theories emphasized rationality, impersonality, efficiency, technical skill, and authoritarianism.